Types of Immunizations – To avoid the severity of life-threatening illnesses, children must be immunized. The types of child immunizations given, preferably as recommended by IDAI, are designed to protect your little one early in life. As a parent, you should understand the importance and variety of immunizations.
This is because babies and children are vulnerable to contracting dangerous diseases. Has Sinaumed’s checked the basic and advanced immunization schedule for your little one? Come on, look at the following types of immunization.
Definition of Immunization
Immunization is a process to make someone immune or immune to a disease. This process is carried out by injecting a vaccine that aims to form the body’s resistance to certain diseases. By routinely carrying out immunizations, it can prevent the spread of disease.
After being born into the world, children need vaccines or immunizations to protect themselves who are still vulnerable to exposure to viruses and bacteria. There are various types of immunizations that your little one should get according to his age.
Immunization recommendations have also been widely conveyed by experts and health organizations. However, unfortunately there are still many parents who are not aware of the importance of immunization for their children.
Immunization aims to protect yourself from various diseases that are dangerous or at risk of causing death. Immunization can also be a way to form herd immunity.
This is important to prevent the spread of disease in people who cannot undergo immunization. In other words, the more people who get immunized, the fewer people who are infected with the disease.
It should be remembered that someone who has had a severe allergic reaction to a previous immunization or is allergic to the ingredients contained in the vaccine, should not get immunized. Patients with cancer or autoimmune diseases who have low immune systems should also not undergo immunization.
Immunization Program Benefits
Immunization prevents a great deal of suffering and death of infants and children from infectious disease outbreaks. Infectious diseases have existed since ancient times. If left unchecked, this can be potentially life-threatening.
By immunizing, it can stop the disease outbreak in the future. Babies should be immunized during their first 2 years of life. Your little one may need several doses of vaccines to be fully protected.
The Ministry of Health and IDAI reminded that giving complete basic immunization alone is not enough. So, a complete follow-up immunization schedule must be carried out.
Baby Age For Immunizations
The following is the recommended age for infants to receive basic immunization types:
- Age <24 hours: Hepatitis B (HB-0).
- Age 0 – 1 month: BCG and Polio 1.
- Age 2 months: DPT – HB – Hib-1, Polio 2, Rotavirus.
- Age 3 months: DPT – HB – Hib – 2, Polio 3.
- Age 4 months: DPT – HB – Hib – 3, Polio 4, IPV, Rotavirus.
- Age 9 months: Measles or MR.
Complete IDAI 2020 Immunization Types
Unhealthy environmental conditions often have the potential to carry diseases that can attack anyone. Actually, all immunizations are important. However, there are indeed some that are considered mandatory or basic immunization types that have been provided by the government.
The following is an explanation of the types of basic to advanced immunizations, as well as the schedule according to the age of the baby, including:
According to the 2020 Indonesian Pediatrician Association (IDAI), giving the BCG vaccine is recommended before the baby is 3 months old. If the baby is more than 3 months old, it is recommended to do a tuberculin test first.
These basic types of immunization protect against tuberculosis, also known as TB. TB is a serious infection that attacks the lungs and sometimes other parts of the body, such as the bones, joints and kidneys. It can also cause meningitis. BCG immunization can be given if the tuberculin test shows a negative result. The recommended place for the BCG immunization injection is on the upper right arm.
The basic types of DPT immunization function to protect against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus. DPT vaccination is recommended to be given 5 times, each at the age of:
- Age 2 months or the fastest at the age of 6 weeks.
- Age 4, 6, 18 months.
- 5 years old.
Furthermore, booster immunizations for children need to be repeated every 10 years.
According to the immunization schedule of the Ministry of Health and IDAI, this includes the types of basic immunizations that your little one needs. The MMR vaccine is responsible for preventing children from experiencing mumps, measles and rubella / German measles.
The first dose is given when the child is 9 months old. After that, give the MMR vaccine when the child is 15 months old, with a minimum distance of 6 months from the measles vaccine.
4. Hepatitis B (HB)
This new type of hepatitis B immunization is given before the baby is 6 months old, as many as 3 doses:
- The first dose is given when the baby is born. Precisely before the baby is 24 hours old.
- The second dose is given when the baby is 1-2 months old.
- The third dose is given when the baby is 6-18 months old.
This type of hepatitis B vaccine coincides with DPT, so administration can be done when the baby is 2.3 and 4 months old. In addition, babies born to mothers with hepatitis B need to get the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine before they are 24 hours old.
Coupled with hepatitis B immunoglobulin at the same time in different parts of the thigh, this is done after receiving a vitamin K1 injection. Giving the next type of immunization can be given according to the schedule. When they are 9–18 months old, babies born to mothers with hepatitis B need to be tested for anti-HBs and HbsAg.
5. Hemophilus influenza B (Hib)
The Hib vaccine is a type of immunization used to prevent infection with Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib). In countries that include it as a routine vaccine the rate of severe Hib infection has fallen by more than 90%.
The Hib vaccine is recommended to be given when the baby is 2, 3, 4 months old. Then, the Ministry of Health’s immunization schedule will be repeated at the age of 12-15 months with doses depending on the baby’s age (3 or 4 doses). This vaccine is often combined with other types of immunization or is called DPT-HB-Hib.
6. Flu or influenza
Influenza or flu viruses cause acute respiratory infections. This results in considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. So, it’s important for your little one to get the flu immunization.
The flu vaccine can be given annually when the child is 6 months to 8 years old in 2 basic or initial doses. Advanced influenza immunization for children can be done once a year.
7. Pneumococcal (PCV)
Pneumococcal vaccine is a type of immunization against Streptococcus pheumoniae bacteria. Its use can prevent some cases of pneumonia, meningitis and sepsis. The PCV vaccine is used 4 times according to the age group, namely when your little one is 2, 4 and 6 months old.
There are two types of pneumococcal vaccines, namely conjugate vaccines and polysaccharide vaccines. Administering the fourth dose of the PCV vaccine to infants aged 12–15 months.
8. IPV (Polio)
The polio vaccine is IDAI’s basic type of immunization used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio). There are 2 types of vaccines used, namely inactivated polio virus by injection (IPV) and by mouth (OPV).
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that all children be vaccinated against polio completely. The first administration of the polio vaccine immediately after the baby is born. After that, the vaccine was given to babies aged 2, 3 and 4 months. At the age of 18 months, children can get advanced polio immunization to get perfect immunity.
Rotavirus immunization serves to prevent children from contracting infectious diseases due to rotavirus such as diarrhea. There are 2 types of vaccines for rotavirus that are considered important. The first is the monovalent rotavirus vaccine, which consists of one type of virus administered twice.
This rotavirus vaccine is given at babies aged 6–14 weeks and 4 weeks after the first purchase. Meanwhile, the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, which consists of several types of viruses, was administered three times at the ages of 2, 4 and 6 months.
To prevent chicken pox, children need to get the varicella vaccine according to IDAI’s schedule. This varicella immunization schedule is given after the child is 1 year old. Based on records from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the varicella vaccine can provide 90–97% protection for 7–10 years. If a child has ever received the varicella vaccine, the chances of getting chickenpox are even smaller.
11. Hepatitis A
The next immunization that children need to get is hepatitis A. This immunization is useful for preventing hepatitis virus infection through food and feces of sufferers. Children receive hepatitis A immunization 2 times with a gap of 6–12 months after the first injection.
It is not mandatory, but this is an IDAI immunization schedule that can be followed. The first gift was when the child was 2 years old, Sinaumed’s.
Typhoid immunization works to prevent infection with the Salmonella typhi bacteria, which causes typhus. The child will receive the typhoid vaccine for the first time when he is 2 years old. Children can get advanced typhoid immunization once every 3 years.
This IDAI immunization schedule can protect children from typhus by around 50-80%. Therefore, parents still have to maintain their child’s diet so they don’t catch this disease.
13. Japanese Encephalitis (JE)
Disease transmission through mosquitoes is not only in dengue fever, but also Japanese Encephalitis (JE). As the name suggests, this disease first appeared in Japan in 1871 as summer encephalitis.
Classified as the Ministry of Health’s immunization schedule, this can be obtained at the age of 12 months. Meanwhile, JE immunization is continued in the next 1-2 years. If a child has missed a vaccination for up to 2 years, there is no need to repeat the vaccine. This can be given directly to the missed vaccine dose. Give a gap of about 1 month between vaccines to catch up, Sinaumed’s.
14. Dengue (DHF)
Dengue (DHF) is a type of child immunization that is classified as advanced or supporting. This immunization is used to prevent dengue fever in children. Dengue vaccine is given to children aged 9–16 years who are seropositive for dengue.
This means that a history of being treated with a diagnosis of dengue has been proven. This requires testing for NS-1 antigen and/or a positive anti-dengue lgM/lgG serological test. Alternatively, your little one can take a positive anti-dengue IgG serological examination.
15. Immunization against measles
This immunization is to prevent measles virus attack which causes high fever, rashes on the skin, eyes, mouth, pneumonia (pneumonia), diarrhea and inflammation of the brain or can even result in death. This measles vaccine is injected from the age of 9 months and 6 years.
Immunization Side Effects
According to IDAI, several types of basic and advanced immunizations sometimes trigger mild side effects. The side effects of immunization according to the Ministry of Health are classified as mild, including:
- Mild to high fever
- Swelling at the injection area
- Reddish skin
- Fussy baby
This right is a common reaction and is called a post-immunization adverse event (AEFI). In general, AEFI will disappear in 3-4 days although sometimes it can take longer.
When to See a Doctor
Before undergoing immunization, tell the doctor if your child has a history of allergies, autoimmune diseases or cancer. In addition, do a child’s examination to the doctor if severe symptoms appear or if the complaint worsens after immunization, such as:
- AEFI symptoms that are getting worse or don’t go away
- Fever more than 2 days
- Breathing problems such as shortness of breath or loss of sense of smell (anosmia)
- Chest pain
- fast heartbeat (tachycardia)
- Loss of consciousness
Management of Immunization Side Effects
Immunizations have been confirmed to be safe, but it is possible that side effects or AEFIs will appear as mentioned above. However, Sinaumed’s need not worry because AEFI can be handled independently according to the symptoms.
Some ways to treat the side effects of immunization in children are:
- Give warm compresses and febrifuge according to the doctor’s prescription
- Give more drink
- Replace children’s clothes with thin fabrics and do not cover children
- Breastfeed more often
- Provide nutritious food
Child immunization is in the form of a catch-up program that lasts until the age of 18 years. However, that does not mean that all types of vaccines can be included in the catch-up immunization program. There are several immunizations that once missed the schedule are not necessary because their effectiveness has decreased.
Catch-up immunization must still pay attention to the time limit and type of vaccine. Provision of catch-up immunization can be through routine immunization programs at the nearest health care facility such as posyandu, midwife, health center or hospital.
Therefore, parents need to consult with a pediatrician about administering follow-up vaccines related to delays in child immunization. This is because the vaccine dose varies depending on the age of the child.
So, those are the types of immunizations that can be used as a reference for your kids, OK, so don’t be late, Sinaumed’s! By providing complete basic immunization on time, it means that Sinaumed’s has provided additional protection for your beloved baby.
With good immunization, your little one will be able to grow healthily without obstacles and avoid serious illnesses. So, don’t hesitate to consult this matter with a pediatrician or midwife in the environment where we live. With a healthy and strong body, children can definitely achieve a bright future. I hope this article inspires you!
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