Time Management: Definition, Characteristics, and How

Time Management – ​​To fulfill any plan or task, decisions for time management are needed, from a few minutes, to several years. Therefore, the special thing in planning is time management. Time is one resource that is non-reproducible and cannot be expropriated. Time management in an activity plan is a technique for managing and increasing the effective use of time. For more details, see the basics regarding time management below.


Definition of time management

According to the 20/80 Pareto law, 20% of the time is spent working efficiently, while 80% is not. Then why is it only 20% effective? And how to increase the effectiveness of the time used? Based on Pareto’s law, the more effective working time, the more work. However, this is considered incorrect, the number and quality of tasks carried out are influenced by professionalism, qualifications and experience. To achieve good efficiency, a solid foundation is needed, such as high motivation and interest.

Time Management itself can also be interpreted as a science in which humans can use time efficiently and effectively which Sinaumed’s can learn from the book Time Management: Philosophy-Theory-Implementation.

The definition of time management according to experts


    • According to Atkinson , time management is a type of skill related to various forms of effort and individual actions that are carried out in a planned manner so that a person is able to make the best use of time.


    • According to Forsyth , time management is a way to make time under control so as to create effectiveness and productivity.


    • According to Akram , time management is the ability to use time effectively and efficiently to obtain maximum benefits.


    • According to Orr , time management is the use of time to do things that are considered important and that are accurate in the work table.


    • According to Leman , time management is the best possible use and utilization of time by making a structured activity plan.


    • According to Davidson , time management is a way to make the best use of time where one can get work done quickly and smartly.


    • According to Frederick Winslow Taylor , time management is a process of achieving the main goals of life as a result of putting aside activities that are less useful and take up a lot of time.

nature of time

Time is the development of existence and events from the past to the future. Here are the characteristics of time;

1. Unintentional

Time is often described as the fourth dimension of length, width and height. Unlike other dimensions, the passage of time is accidental. In theory, you can stop at a point in space, and stand there while the planet continues to spin.

2. Cannot be changed

time occurs as an irreversible sequence of events so that once something has happened, something has to have happened. There is a relationship between events called causation where something in the past affects what happens in the present, but things that happen in the future cannot affect the past.

3. Something needed

Time is something that is a requirement for everything to happen. In other words, nothing happens in an instant without time progression.

4. Countable

Time can be measured in units called seconds. Time is an important measurement for almost every human occupation including science, art, business and everyday activities.

5. Absolute timing

Absolute time is the idea that time is constant throughout the universe for all observers. this is the basis for the physical system proposed by Sir Isaac Newton known as Newton’s Laws.


Characteristics of successful time management

1. Evaluation

Take a few days to record the time spent on daily tasks. Decide what you want to achieve, then mark activities that don’t fall into that category. Record anything that interferes or hinders the achievement of goals in a timely manner. Also note tasks that can be simplified to save time.

We can also start this time management early on, where children who have good time management will carry it into adulthood. Through the book I’m Smart in Managing Time, Sinaumed’s can learn good time management through various stories with the theme of how to manage time.

2. Plans and priorities

Take time at the start of the day and in the evening each day to plan by prioritizing tasks based on the goals you want to achieve. If you have a big project, break it down into smaller projects so you don’t get overwhelmed. Bring your agenda or schedule anywhere so you can stay focused and remember the things you want to do. When at the end of the day there are unfinished tasks, don’t panic. Move unfinished tasks to the next day.

That way, you can have a guide in the daily activities that you do so that the time you have is not wasted. By managing the time you have, it indicates that there are goals you want to achieve, so that achieving these goals towards success will be easier to achieve. As discussed in the book Manage Your Time For Success, Smartly Manage Time To Achieve Success.

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3. Eliminate time theft

Remove distractions that interfere with your daily productivity. Schedule some time to answer emails, return phone calls or sms. Unless there’s an emergency call going on. This is to avoid being distracted by incoming calls and messages throughout the day. Also avoid diving into social media during working hours. Reduce chatting with co-workers so that the goals you want to achieve can be realized.

4. Delegation

If there is a large project, delegate tasks to subordinates or colleagues. This allows your co-workers or subordinates to learn new skills, besides that this also won’t take up your time all day. If there are colleagues or subordinates who are ready to help, don’t refuse, accept the help to save time.

5. Say no

Learn to say no in a polite way. This applies to rejecting additional work or activities that do not match your goals. Hanging out with friends just because you feel bad can waste your precious time that would be better spent on important tasks.

6. Rest

Rest is important for every human being. Make a schedule to rest and clear your mind. Plan regular exercise and incorporate it into your daily or weekly routine to stay healthy and fit. Also consume healthy foods and avoid junk food which can cause lethargy and lack of focus. Stop working when you feel tired, don’t let work also take up our valuable rest time.


Impact of bad time management

1. Delay

Do you often procrastinate your work? Or do you find it difficult to start a job? Actually, it only takes small steps to get the motivation to get the job done. For example, if you want to go to the gym to work out, all you have to do is walk out. Once you start, make sure you finish the job.

2. Lack of sleep

When you can’t manage your time well, you will definitely experience a messy sleep schedule. Of course this will have an impact on your health. In addition, if you don’t get enough sleep, it can cause activities to be hampered and you become less focused. Try to schedule your work, if it’s time to sleep, don’t put it off. Maintain a consistent sleep schedule.

3. Consuming unhealthy food and lack of exercise

A common reason for most people not exercising is not having enough time. In fact, it’s just poor time management. people who don’t manage time well also tend to eat instant food which is certainly not good for the body in the long run. If you don’t take care of your body, your mind will tire easily and you most likely won’t get the benefit of your time.

4. Lack of energy

If you feel unfocused and unenthusiastic, it is a sign that you are not making good use of your time. Evaluate what activities you do in a day at night or in the morning. That way you will be refocused and excited to achieve the goals you want.

5. Not on time

Not being on time is one result of bad time management. If you arrive late or leave early from work, you may leave productive things there. Also, it’s important to match your schedule with co-workers if you work with other people.

6. In a hurry

Do you often do work in a rush? You may set unrealistic deadlines or be subject to over-commitment. Try to manage your time well, don’t say ‘yes’ to all the plans.

7. Disorganization

You may feel that you are disorganized. Like sleeping in the morning and working at night, or maybe you spend too long surfing social media so it takes up your work or sleep time. Things like that can exacerbate your time management, try to record the work you want to do and set a time for it so that your daily time stays organized.

8. Unbalanced work and life time

Are you overworked? Or too much fun outside? If so, then you have bad time management. There’s nothing wrong with having fun, but don’t forget about the work or goals you want to achieve. Try to manage your time with a balanced work and life so you feel more productive every day.

9. Multitasking

One of the signs that your time management is bad is multitasking. When you are working on one job and your focus is diverted to another job, try not to get distracted. This will lead to work that is not completed properly and hampers productivity.

The things above are the bad effects of the absence of time management starting from the habits we do. Sinaumed’s can read the book The Habit Of Billionaires in Managing Time and Money which is below which contains the differences in habits between billionaires and ordinary people in managing the time and money they have.

Time management benefits

Managing time well allows one to do the right job at the right time. Time management has an important role in one’s personal and professional life. Here are some of the benefits of time management.

1. Time management makes a person punctual and disciplined.

To make good use of time, one must prepare a series of plans for what tasks one wants to do in the morning or at night. This will give someone an understanding of what he is doing, thereby producing good work.

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2. Time management makes a person more tidy or organized.

Keeping things in their place minimizes time to look for them if needed. People with good time management will keep their desk or study area cleaner and organized.

3. Time management improves one’s morale and becomes more self-confident.

As a result of good time management, one will complete the task within the allotted time and make him ahead of the rest of the team. People who understand time will be looked up to and always be the center of attention.

4. Time management can reduce stress and anxiety levels.

People who can complete work on time are considered to have lower levels of stress and anxiety than other people. Remember when working on something to stay focused because there is no point in procrastinating. After the work is done you will have plenty of time for family, friends and other relatives.

Time Management Book Recommendations

So that you can make better use of your time, sinaumedia has several books related to time management. Here’s a recommended book:

1. The Art of Managing Time

The only thing that doesn’t stop in this world is time. He continues to walk tirelessly, in fact he can just pass by when we are careless or lulled because we really enjoy a moment or maybe when we feel bored because something we are waiting for never comes. Time, can be evil or vice versa, depending on how we respond and see it. “Time is a created thing. To say ‘I don’t have time,’ is like saying, ‘I don’t want to.” This quote from Lao Tzu reminds us that time is a matter of creating something.

Until when are we going to deny that we have no time, when in fact there is a lot of time to be spent in this life? Would you be happy if you lived like that all the time? See how the right way to manage the time in your life through this book. Not only that, you will also learn the right way to spend every second, minute, and hour of your life without any regrets.

2. Freedom to Manage Time

The background to the birth of this book was his concern at seeing that many people were so overwhelmed with time management, had to rush about and seemed very busy. As a result, many other things are neglected, and even have the potential to cause many losses.

Even though the problem lies in time management, which is actually a simple matter. Starting with fixing the mind and then fixing the way of life and changing habits, that’s where the secret lies. How to? You can listen to it in this book

3. Time Lazy? No Way!

Time and opportunities are gifts from God, not by themselves. Because many people are not given a chance after throwing it away even though they whine and ask for it back, then only regret is there. Underestimating time is the same as underestimating God’s gift. Whereas humans are just creatures who depend on God’s destiny. It seems that we have much to learn about raising awareness of how to make good use of time, and fill it with kindness.

We also have to learn a lot about optimism, rising from failure, thinking positively about all events, thinking creatively in finding solutions, and of course we have a lot to learn about the meaning of life. That’s why this book is here, not meant to patronize, but to remind everyone that we only live once in the world so that we can make the best use of it, including using time and opportunities. I hope that the presence of this book will encourage me to live my life and have a positive impact on my readers, especially for me to continue to improve myself. Time Lazy? No Way!


Good way of time management

There are several methods that can help manage time well. The first is, making a series of activities and sorting which ones are the most important and which ones are less important to do. Which should be completed as soon as possible, which do not need to be completed as soon as possible. If you don’t plan like this, the tasks will become ‘urgent’.

  • Everyone has their own rhythm and characteristics. There are some people who tend to work better when times are under pressure and usually will lead to creativity in times of stress. There are also people who can work better if they have a longer time because they will be more thorough in their work. So it’s important to find out what kind of time management and work techniques are most effective for you and your team.
  • Proper time management allows us to achieve our goals so that we feel that we have a balanced life. There are several ways to manage work time, first, allocate 60% of the time for planned work and leave 40% for unforeseen time. Second, always keep a timeline, that way it will enable us to make more effective plans in the future.
  • Third, divide activities into short, medium and long-term activities with an indication of each time. Fourth, plan the amount of work that can actually be completed in the allotted time. Fifth, make sure to work in a quiet place without any outside distractions. If when you work you get a lot of outside distractions, of course it will hinder your work or even your productivity.

The most important thing about time management that is easy, fun and learnable is to practice it directly and not just with theory or sitting in a seminar as discussed in the book Time Management Is Practiced.

In a planning or time management system, it is very important to prioritize the tasks you want to do, determine and sequence the work according to their respective levels of importance.


  1. Scott Shpak. 2014. What Are Six Characteristics of Successful Time Management?. Retrieved from https://mom.com/baby/16591-what-are-six-characteristics-successful-time-management
  2. Gea, Antonius Atosokhi. 2014. Time Management: Using Time Effectively and Efficiently. Humanities Vol. 5 no.2