Relics of the Buddhist kingdom – Learning all things related to history is really fun. Where when we study history, it will be easier for us to find the life journey of our ancestors in the past.
In fact, at this time there is also historical evidence that still stands majestically or is stored in museums as a medium of learning for the next generation.
Indonesia is a country that has many historical heritages, some of which you may already know. Every historical heritage in Indonesia is also influenced by certain religious features such as Buddhism.
It is undeniable that today there is still evidence of the relics of the Buddhist empire which are widespread throughout Indonesia. So, for more details, what are the evidences of the relics of the Buddhist kingdom that are still standing strong or are stored in museums, here is a complete explanation.
List of Temples Relics of the Buddhist Empire in Indonesia
1. Borobudur Temple
Talking about Buddhist relics will not be complete if you do not discuss the Borobudur Temple. Where the Borobudur Temple is one of the proofs that Buddhism once existed in Indonesia.
Borobudur Temple itself is formed from stupas and according to history was built in the 8th century AD by Mahayana Buddhists. It has a size that is quite large, so that the Borobudur Temple always shows its magnificent side.
In fact, the Borobudur Temple is the largest Buddhist monument and temple in the world, you know . Until now, the existence of Borobudur Temple is still used as a place of worship by adherents of Buddhist teachings, especially during the commemoration of Trisuci Vesak Day.
For the construction of the building, Borobudur Temple has three circular courtyards with one main stupa, 72 perforated stupas, 2,672 relief panels and there are around 504 Buddha statues.
Borobudur Temple is a place of worship for Buddhists in Indonesia and the world, located in Magelang Regency, Central Java. In addition, UNESCO has also included Borobudur Temple as one of the world’s cultural heritages.
2. Kalasan Temple
Furthermore, there is the Kalasan Temple which is also one of the buildings that has a Buddhist style. Where Kalasan Temple itself is located in Sleman Regency and until now it is still standing so firmly.
Kalasan Temple is a temple with a Buddhist style which was in Bandung in 778 AD for Dewi Tara who is known in Mahayana Buddhism. The existence of the Kalasan Temple can be used as evidence that there was an occupation of the Syailendra dynasty, the rulers of Srivijaya in Sumatra and Java.
In the area of the Kalasan Temple complex, there is a main temple which is surrounded by 52 small stupas which, if we look at it today, may not be intact like it was at the beginning of construction.
3. Mendut Temple
Mendut Temple is also one of the temples that has a Buddhist style. Mendut Temple itself is located in Magelang Regency, Central Java. Then, Mendut Temple is thought to have been built during the reign of King Indra from the Syailendra Dynasty.
An archaeologist from the Netherlands named JG De Casparis also has a suspicion that Mendut Temple was built by the first king of the Syailendra dynasty in 824 or in the 9th century during the ancient Mataram kingdom. This can also be proven by the existence of the Karangtengah inscription.
Because of its presence in Magelang, Mendut Temple is included in a series of Buddhist temples in the area. In the Mendut Temple building there are three large Buddha statues.
The activity of the Buddha statue is like Dhyani Buddha Wairocana with the dharmachakra mudra (mudra) gesture, and is flanked by the Awalokiteśwara (Padmapāņi) statue on the left side and the Wajrapāņi statue on the right side.
4. Pawon Temple
Furthermore, there is the Pawon Temple which is also a temple with a Buddhist style. The existence of Pawon Temple is between Borobudur Temple and Mendut Temple. Apart from that, the existence of Pawon Temple and the two temples also have such a close relationship.
This can be seen from the geographical position of Pawon Temple which is straight and the existence of the same relief sculptures from Borobudur Temple and Mendut Temple. A Dutch archaeologist named JG De Casparis explained that Pawon Temple was the place where the ashes of King Indera (782 to 812 AD) were placed, who was also the father of King Samaratungga who came from the Syailendra dynasty.
Some people also say that the name Pawon comes from the word Pawuhan or if it means a place to store ashes. In addition, JG De Casparis revealed that Pawon Temple was also mentioned in the Karangtengah inscription.
Not only serves as a storage for ashes, Pawon Temple is also used as a storage place for weapons.
5. Brahu Temple
Candi Brahu is a temple with the next Buddhist pattern. Where is the Brahu Temple located on the Trowulan site and when viewed from history, the Trowulan site was the capital of the Majapahit Kingdom in the past.
Brahu Temple itself is a Buddhist temple which in the manufacturing process uses red bricks. Judging from the inscription written by mpu Rompit, Brahu Temple was the place where the ashes of the kings were burned at that time. However, from further research, no traces of corpse ashes were found in the chambers of the temple.
Until now, the existence of Brahu Temple is still well maintained and has become a cultural site in the local area. To visit Brahu Temple, you can go directly to its location, which is on Jl. Brahu Temple No. 73, Siti Inggil, Bejijong, Kec. Trowulan, Mojokerto Regency, East Java.
6. Banyunibo Temple
Banyunibo Temple is one of the temples which also has a Buddhist style. Banyunibo Temple was built in the 9th century during the Ancient Mataram Kingdom. If interpreted, the name Banyunibo is a drop of water. When viewed from the ruins, Banyunibo Temple still has several other accompanying temples around it.
Banyunibo Temple is located in Bokoharjo Village, Prambanan, Sleman Regency. Apart from that, the existence of Banyunibo Temple is also not far from the Ratu Boko site.
The existence of Banyunibo Temple is still in the same complex as the main temple and perwara temples that surround it. On the outer wall of Banyunibo Temple there is a Bodhisattwa statue. This can also prove that Banyunibo Temple is a Buddhist temple.
7. Muara Takus Temple
Muara Takus Temple, located in the village of Muara Takus, Tiga Belas Koto Kampar District, Kampar Regency, Riau Province, is a Buddhist temple. As for the initial construction, it is not yet known with certainty, but the existence of the Muara Takus Temple itself is believed to have existed since the golden age of the Sriwijaya kingdom.
Because of this, many researchers think that the location of the Muara Takus Temple was one of the administrative centers of the Sriwijaya Kingdom at that time. The raw materials for making Muara Takus Temple are slightly different from the raw materials used to make Buddhist temples on the island of Java in general.
Usually, Buddhist temples on the island of Java use Andesite raw materials. As for the Muara Takus Temple, it is made of sandstone, river stone and also bricks which are believed to have been taken from Pongkai Village.
The existence of a stupa which is also the symbol of Gautama Buddha at Muara Takus Temple makes it one of the characteristics of the existence of the Buddhist style. In addition, the temple is also more widely known because of the existence of a large stupa with a tower shape.
Please note, if Muara Takus Temple is a complex in which there are several other historical buildings. Starting from the Old Temple, Youngest Temple, Mahligai Stupa and also Palangka.
In addition, Muara Takus Temple is the oldest temple on the island of Sumatra and is the only historical heritage site in the form of a temple in Riau.
8. Muaro Jambi Temple
The Muaro Jambi Temple, which is located in Maro Sebo District, Muaro Jambi Regency, Jambi Province, or more simply, is located on the banks of the Batanghari River, is one of the next Buddhist style temples. From the results of existing research, Muaro Jambi Temple is a place of worship and also a place of education for Buddhist teachings.
It is estimated that the construction of the Muaro Jambi Temple was in the 7th to 12th centuries AD. Therefore, Muaro Jambi Temple is also suspected as one of the relics of the Sriwijaya Kingdom.
The Muaro Jambi Temple Complex is arguably the largest Hindu-Buddhist temple complex in Southeast Asia. In the Muaro Jambi Temple complex, after the restoration was carried out, there are nine buildings. In addition, outside the area there is still a lot of potential for other ancient buildings.
9. Bahal Temple
Next, there is the Bahal Temple which is thought to have existed since the 11th century. Bahal Temple is also known as Bairo Bahal and also Portibi Temple. As for the location of the Bahal Temple, it is in Bahal Village, Padang Bolak, Sibatu Loting, Kec. Central Barumun, North Padang Lawas Regency, North Sumatra.
You could say that Bahal Temple is the largest temple complex in North Sumatra. Where the Bahal Temple complex is divided into three groups namely Bahal I, Bahal II and Bahal II. The existence of the Bahal Temple is often associated with the existence of the Pannai Kingdom.
10. Jabung Temple
Jabung Temple which is located in Candi Village, Jabung Temple, Kec. Paiton, Probolinggo Regency, East Java is one of the relics of the Majapahit Kingdom. Where the Corn Temple itself is estimated to have been built in 1354 AD.
Based on the Paraton Book, the Corn Temple was allegedly built for the tomb of Bhra Gundul, a member of the royal family. The temple with the Buddhist style is synonymous with red. This is none other than because the construction of the Corn Temple still uses red brick raw materials.
11. Plaosan Temple
Next, there is the Plaosan Temple which is located in Bugisan Village, Prambanan District, Klaten Regency, Central Java. Plaosan Temple itself is an ancient building complex which is divided into two parts, namely the Plaosan Lor Temple complex and the Plaosan Kidul Temple complex.
The existence of these two main temples makes the Plaosan Temple complex known as the Twin Temples. The existence of stupas and Buddha statues shows that Plaosan Temple is a relic of Buddhism in the archipelago at that time.
Although Plaosan Temple is a Buddhist Temple. However, experts estimate that the process of building Plaosan Temple was during the reign of Rakai Pikatan from the Hindu Mataram Kingdom or more precisely in the early 9th century AD.
12. Sewu Temple
Sewu Temple is included in the ranks of temples with Buddhist styles. Where when viewed from the size, Sewu Temple occupies the second largest position after Borobudur Temple. However, for its age, Sewu Temple is older than Borobudur Temple and Prambanan Temple.
The construction of the Sewu Temple itself is estimated in 800 AD. Even though it has the name Sewu Temple, in reality this temple only has 249 temples.
However, the local community gave it the name Sewu Temple which can be interpreted as a thousand temples. The name Sewu Temple is also related to the legend of Roro Jonggrang.
The Sewu Temple complex is estimated to have been built at the end of Rakai Panangkaran’s reign. Where Rakai Panangkaran is the famous king of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom. However, the existence of Sewu Temple underwent restoration during the reign of Rakai Pikatan, a prince from the Sanjaya Dynasty who married Pramodhawardhani from the Syailendra Dynasty.
To visit Sewu Temple, you can go directly to its location, namely Jl. Raya Solo-Yogyakarta No.KM.16, Bugisan, Kec. Prambanan, Sleman Regency, Special Region of Yogyakarta.
13. Jago Temple
Jago Temple, which is located in Jago Hamlet, Tumpang Village, Tumpang District, Malang Regency, is one of the next Buddhist temples. According to the Negarakertagama and Pararaton Books, the name of Jago Temple itself is actually Jajaghu which, if interpreted, is a holy place.
The purpose of the Jago Temple is to be used as a building to honor King Wisnuwardhana who adheres to the Shiva Buddhist religion. Shiva Buddhism is a religious sect that combines the teachings of Hinduism and Buddhism.
As for the estimated development process of Jago Temple, it is between 1268 AD to 1280 AD.
14. Ratu Boko Temple
Ratu Boko Temple is the next Buddhist temple. Ratu Boko Temple is located on Jl. Raya Piyungan – Prambanan No.2, Gatak, Bokoharjo, Kec. Prambanan, Sleman Regency, Special Region of Yogyakarta 5572. As for the building itself, it is located on a hill bordering Sleman Regency, Special Region of Yogyakarta.
The existence of Ratu Boko Temple is not only used as a place of worship. However, Ratu Boko Temple is also used as a residential complex or palace. According to the inscription that was found explaining that the beginning of the Ratu Boko Temple Site was a monastery for a Buddhist priest named Abhayagiri.
However, this building also functioned as a palace by a Hindu ruler named Rakai Walaing Pu Kumbayoni.
Inscriptions, statues, and books as relics of the Buddhist kingdom
1. Tukmas Inscription
The Tukmas inscription is one of the relics from the Kalingga kingdom. The Tukmas inscription itself was found on the western slope of Mount Merapi, Magelang, Central Java. The Tukmas inscription was made using Pallawa letters and Sanskrit. The contents of the Tukmas Inscription itself describes a clear spring which is likened to the Ganges river in India.
2. Canggal Inscription
The Canggal inscription was found in the courtyard area of Gunung Wukir Temple, Canggal Village. The Canggal inscription can be said to be evidence of a relic from the Ancient Mataram Kingdom. Where the contents of the Canggal Inscription itself are about the Linga or Shiva symbol in the village of Kunjarakunja which was founded by King Sanjaya.
3. The Kudadu Inscription
The Kudadu inscription is one of the relics from the Majapahit Kingdom. The Kudadu inscription contains information about the experience of Raden Wijaya who was assisted by Rama Kudadu from the Jayakatwang Kingdom. After Raden Wijaya succeeded in occupying the king’s throne, he gave gifts of sima land to the residents and the Head of the Village of Kudadu.
4. The Kedukan Bukit Inscription
The Kedukan Bukit inscription was found in Kedukan Bukit Village, Palembang, South Sumatra. Where the Kedukan Bukit Inscription is evidence of the legacy of the Sriwijaya Kingdom. Historians explain that the Kedukan Bukit Inscription is a historical relic with a Buddhist pattern made in 683 AD. The Kedukan Bukit inscription explains the progress of Nusantara shipping during the Sriwijaya Kingdom.
5. Statue of Gautama Buddha
Next there is the statue of Gautama Buddha which is a relic from the ancient Mataram kingdom. The Gautama Buddha statue itself was found in Sikendeng Village, Mamuju Regency, West Sulawesi in 1921.
The Gautama Buddha statue is made of bronze statues and is estimated to have been made in 200 AD. Historians explain that the Gautama Buddha statue has a different style from other statues in Borobudur Temple or relics of the Sriwijaya Kingdom. Where the pattern on the Gautama Buddha statue has the same characteristics as the statue found in Amarawati, India.
6. Negarakertagama book
The Negarakertagama book is a work created by Mpu Prapanca or Dang Acarya Nadendra. Mpu Prapanca himself was one of the people who promoted Buddhism in the Majapahit Kingdom at that time.
The book Nagarakretagama has the meaning of the title “A country with a sacred religious tradition”. In the Nagarakretagama book there is information that describes the Majapahit Kingdom during the reign of Hayam Wuruk.
Please note that the information contained in the Negarakertagama book is written in Old Javanese. Currently, the existence of the Negarakertagama book is used as a cultural heritage in Indonesia.
Well , those are some of the relics of the Buddhist kingdom in the archipelago. In addition to some of the relics above, there are many more relics from the Buddhist kingdom that have been found in Indonesia.
If you want to find books about kingdoms in Indonesia, then you can find them at sinaumedia.com . Reading lots of books and articles will never hurt you, because Sinaumed’s will get #MoreWithReading information and knowledge .
Author: Hendrik Nuryanto