The Theory of Human Evolution and Its Controversy

most of you must have heard stories about human origins, right? There is an evolutionary theory that says that humans came from apes. Do you think that information is correct or not? Well, before discussing this further, it’s a good idea to first know what is meant by the theory of evolution.

Actually, until now there is still a debate about the theory of evolution. Instead of being curious, in this article, we wants to invite you to discuss what is meant by the theory of evolution, as well as unique facts and growing controversies. Read this article until it’s finished.

What is the Theory of Evolution?

The theory of evolution is a theory that discusses the changes or development of living things, their origins, and their genetic linkages between one living thing and another. In the theory of evolution, change or development of living things occurs due to a combination of three main processes, namely variation, reproduction, and natural selection.

human evolution
human evolution – source :

In the process of reproduction and variation, the characteristics or characteristics of a living being that form the basis of evolution are carried by genes and passed on to the next generation. The inheritance of this gene can be a lot of variation in a population.

In short, when living things reproduce, their offspring will have new traits, it can be more common or rarer than the previous generation. These traits can occur due to gene mutations or gene transfer between populations or between species.

The theory of evolution also states that evolution occurs due to the process of natural selection. In this natural selection, traits that are detrimental to living things will decrease, while traits that are beneficial will have a great chance of survival and reproduction. So, there will be more living beings in the next generation who will inherit these beneficial traits.

In addition, adaptation is also an important factor in the evolutionary process of living things, you know. For example, in today’s humans, there are minor differences between people living on the coast and people living in the mountains.

The number of red blood cells of people in the mountains is more than the red blood cells of people on the beach. This is an evolutionary process that occurs due to natural adaptations that occur in the human body.

The culmination of the evolutionary process is usually marked by the emergence of new species. Based on history, it is the evolutionary process that has resulted in the emergence of many species of living things in this world.

All living things have different species and these differences can be evidence that the theory of evolution really occurs in nature. Species differences can occur due to strict adaptation, geographical conditions of the region, gene mutations, and natural selection.

Theory of Evolution According to Experts

Some experts define the theory of evolution as follows:


It is argued that the origin of life on earth was the ocean. Therefore, all living things on earth, including humans, were originally fish.

When the heat of the sun caused the appearance of land on earth, living things began to move to the land. According to him, it makes the evolution of living things from fish to various land living creatures, including humans.

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George Louis Leclerc

Believe that the earth is very old, more than 7,000 years. Therefore, he argues that living things have existed and developed during the age of the earth based on their migratory movements.

As a result of these migration movements, living things must eventually adapt to their new environment. The pattern of adaptation is what causes living things to evolve due to the interaction of organic particles that trigger changes in the bodies of living things.

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

Has two ideas about evolution. The first idea relates to the parts of the body that are used and not used by living things.

Through this idea, he assumed that the parts of the body that are constantly used by living things in dealing with certain environments will become bigger and stronger than the parts of the body that are rarely used. Meanwhile, limbs that are rarely used will experience setbacks.

Lamarck’s second idea relates to the inheritance of traits or traits that living things acquire in adapting to their environment. It is this inheritance of traits or traits that modifies the organism that it acquires during its lifetime.

For example, the so-called giraffe has a short neck, but because its neck is constantly sticking out to get leaves on a tall tree, the giraffe’s neck begins to get long. This long neck is passed on to all his descendants.

Charles Robert Darwin

argues that evolution occurs through the process of natural selection. Only living things that can adapt to nature can survive.

In contrast to Lamarck who thought that giraffes were originally only short-necked, Darwin argued that the necks of giraffes were initially varied, some with short necks and some with long necks.

Through the process of natural selection, the short-necked giraffe eventually became extinct and only the long-necked giraffe has managed to survive and reproduce to this day.

In addition to explaining evolution based on the process of natural selection, Darwin also argued that all species on earth came from a common ancestor ( common ancestor ), which evolved over time.

Early Human Evolution Theory

By this point, you have begun to understand what is meant by the theory of evolution, right? To be clear, it’s better if you know the theory of early human evolution.

After removing body hair, humans were naked for 1 million years. Why did they put on clothes later?

As discussed earlier, Anaximander, a pre-Socratic philosopher who lived around 610–546 BC has discussed the possibility of how humans evolved from fish. However, there is no scientific evidence that can prove this opinion.

Over time, this theory of human evolution focuses more on the assumption that humans evolved or evolved on earth from extinct primates, you know. The primates that are often associated with human evolution are ape-like primates. That’s why there is a lot of information circulating that humans came from apes.

Evidence that primates are related to humans is from their genetics. DNA between humans and primates can reach a similarity of up to 97%. However, that does not mean that humans are considered to have originated from apes. This fact can only trace that humans and primates may have shared a common ancestor.

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Human Theory According to Charles Darwin

In fact, information about humans evolving from apes emerged because of Charles Darwin’s theory of human evolution. In the book ” The Origin of Species ” which put forward the theory of evolution written by Charles Darwin, concluded that all living things came from a common ancestor ( common ancestor ) and are related to each other.

According to Darwin in the book, the process of genetic mutation from a common ancestor resulted in the process of evolution and the emergence of various new species. Darwin imagined human evolution like a tree.

A single tree trunk and roots are the ancestors of living things. While the twigs and leaves of trees become new species that were born due to the process of genetic mutation. The process of genetic mutation can occur due to natural selection in a long time.

From natural selection, Darwin then divided the evolutionary process into microevolution and macroevolution. Microevolution is changes that occur in species in small ways. For example, changes in color or size in a population over several generations.

While macroevolution is a change due to natural selection that is able to create new species. For example, the change of dinosaurs into birds, amphibian mammals into whales, and the ancestors of apes into humans.

Human Evolution Theory Controversy

Darwin’s statement about what is meant by the theory of human evolution that later caused controversy. Did humans come from apes or not?

Actually, Darwin’s theory of humans never concluded with certainty that humans evolved directly from apes. He simply argued that all living things came from a common ancestor. Evidently, from the similarity of human DNA with primates by 97%.

However, the theory of human evolution has already been debated. Essentialists and religious people reject this theory emphatically. They believe that humans have been created according to their shape and nature as they are now by God.

Some people also think that Darwin’s theory cannot explain the missing link in the process of human evolution. The missing sequence of human evolution is a link between the hairy and tailed generation like apes and intelligent and intelligent living things like humans.

The undiscovered human fossil in the form of half human and half ape is considered to be the missing link to explain the sequence of human evolution. The fossil is considered necessary to be valid evidence that humans did evolve from an ape.


Even though the theory of evolution causes controversy, but you can see strong evidence about the truth of this theory of evolution. For example, you can see that the racial differences that exist in humans are part of the strict adaptation process that occurred in ancient homo sapiens . Or, you can see it from the immunity of bacteria and microbes to certain antibiotics that occurs due to the process of genetic change.

That is a review of  the theory of human evolution, along with its controversies. Hopefully the above review can help you understand what is meant by the theory of evolution, yes.