Photosynthetic Process

Discussion of the Photosynthesis Process in Plants [+Image]

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Since we were in elementary school, of course, we are all familiar with the term photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process of making food substances carried out by plants that takes place on the role of the sun. If the sun shines very brightly, then the process of photosynthesis can run perfectly. Because without the sun, photosynthesis could never happen.

Photosynthesis role in the Carbon Cycle
Photosynthesis role in the Carbon Cycle

Definition of Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis comes from two words, photo which means light and synthesis which means the process of making or processing using nutrients. On earth, there are only a few creatures that can carry out photosynthesis. Among them: plants, algae, and several types of bacteria.

It can be said that photosynthesis is very important for life on this earth. This is because almost all living things are very dependent on the energy produced from the photosynthesis process in plants , especially in terms of obtaining food sources (glucose).

see phorosynthesis definition from wikipedia.

Photosynthesis Function

After knowing the meaning of photosynthesis, we continue with the function of photosynthesis. There are many functions obtained from photosynthesis. And here are some of the functions obtained from photosynthesis.

Producing Glucose

Photosynthesis is carried out by plants to produce glucose. Glucose is also the main raw material that can be used as the manufacture of other food substances, such as fats and proteins in plants. These substances are also a source of food for animals and humans. Therefore, the ability of plants to convert light energy into chemical substances has always been the most important thing in the food chain system.

Convert Carbon Dioxide to Oxygen

Photosynthesis also functions to clean the air. Carbon dioxide that cause of global warming  can be reduced due to the photosynthesis process carried out by plants. Because carbon dioxide is the raw material used for photosynthesis. The more photosynthesis occurs, the more carbon dioxide content is reduced in the air.

Produce Coal

Photosynthesis carried out by plants also causes plant remains that lived in the past and buried in the ground to turn into coal which is still one of the sources of energy for life on this earth. This is of course very important because coal has so many functions and benefits. Therefore, it is appropriate for us to always maintain and preserve the plants that exist in our environment.

Main Ingredients Used In Photosynthesis Process

  • Carbon dioxide (CO2)
  • Water
  • Chlorophyll
  • Sunlight

Photosynthesis Process

Photosynthetic Process
Photosynthesis Process

The process of photosynthesis also has stages, and the following steps are carried out by plants during the photosynthesis process.

  • Photosynthesis begins with carbon dioxide taken from the mouth of the leaf at night. After carbon dioxide is taken, plants will then take water from the soil by using the roots carried by the transportation system in plants. The transport system that carries water is called xylem and
  • If sunlight is available, then plant chlorophyll will directly absorb sunlight as the main energy in making glucose
  • Furthermore, glucose will be directly processed into protein, fat, and other substances. The process of photosynthesis is also very complex.
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2 Stages in Photosynthesis

In general, the process of photosynthesis that occurs in chloroplasts requires sunlight to be able to make glucose. But there is also a process of photosynthesis that does not require sunlight at all. As a result there are 2 types of reactions caused by the process of photosynthesis. The following are the two reactions.

The two stages of photosynthesis
The two stages of photosynthesis : Photosynthesis takes place in two stages: light-dependent reactions and the Calvin cycle (light-independent reactions). Light-dependent reactions, which take place in the thylakoid membrane, use light energy to make ATP and NADPH. The Calvin cycle, which takes place in the stroma, uses energy derived from these compounds to make GA3P from CO2. source :

1. Light dependent Reaction / Photolysis

The light reaction is a photosynthetic reaction that requires the help of sunlight. In general, this reaction takes place in an open space exposed to direct sunlight. The light reactions also take place in the thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast space. In this reaction, chlorophyll will serve as an absorber of sunlight which is used to convert water molecules into oxygen and hydrogen. The light reaction is also known as photolysis.

2. Dark Reaction / The Calvin Cycle

If the light reactions desperately need help from sunlight, then the dark reactions don’t need it at all. But the dark reaction can never happen if the plant does not carry out the light reaction first. If the light reactions take place in the thylakoid membrane, the dark reactions take place in the stroma and chloroplasts.

The processes that occur in the dark reactions are also very complex, just like those that occur in the light reactions. The purpose of this dark reaction is to convert carbon dioxide into glucose. Therefore, the light reaction is closely related to the dark reaction. Because the dark reaction itself can never occur if the plant does not carry out the light reaction first.

Factors Affecting the Success of Photosynthesis

There are several factors that can affect the success of the photosynthesis process. The success or failure of the photosynthesis process is very dependent on the elements that are the basic ingredients in the photosynthesis process. Not only that, the condition is also one of the factors that can influence. And here are some factors that affect the success of the photosynthesis process.

  • Internal Factors

Internal factors are factors that come from plants that will carry out photosynthesis. Because basically there are many types of plants that live in various conditions. Therefore the photosynthetic reactions that occur will also be very different.

In addition, heredity is also one of the things that greatly affects the process of photosynthesis. For example, such as albino plant species that absolutely cannot produce chlorophyll. So that the type of albino plant can not carry out the process of photosynthesis. There are also several other influencing factors. Among them: leaf age, completeness of plant organs, number of leaves, and carbohydrate translocation.

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red colored plant
  • External Factors

In addition to the internal factors described above, there are also external factors that also greatly affect the success of the photosynthesis process carried out by plants. And here are some external factors that affect the success of the photosynthesis process.

  • Water Availability

Water is one of the main ingredients needed in the process of photosynthesis. The availability of water in the soil greatly affects the results that will be obtained from the photosynthesis process. The more water content in the soil, the greater the results that will be obtained from the photosynthesis process. Vice versa, if the water content in the soil is very little, the smaller the results that will be obtained from the photosynthesis process. The process of photosynthesis can also potentially fail.

  • temperature

Photosynthesis is highly dependent on the performance of enzymes. Enzymes themselves can work optimally at a temperature of 23-30 degrees Celsius. If the available temperature reaches minus 5 degrees Celsius or even exceeds 50 degrees Celsius, the photosynthesis process carried out by plants will not produce maximum results.

  • Content of Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

In order for plants to carry out photosynthesis, plants really need carbon dioxide. Plants must absorb at least 0.03 percent of the existing amount of carbon dioxide. But that’s just the bare minimum. The more carbon dioxide content absorbed by plants, the better the results obtained by plants from the photosynthesis process itself.

  • Oxygen Content (O2)

Not only carbon dioxide, plants also need oxygen to be able to carry out photosynthesis. Because oxygen is the energy used by plants during photosynthesis. If the oxygen content around is very low, the results will not be perfect. This is because very little oxygen content can inhibit the respiratory system in plants.

That’s a brief discussion of the meaning of photosynthesis and a little discussion of the processes that occur during photosynthesis. Hopefully the above explanation can add insight to all of us.

In addition, we all must try as much as possible to be able to maintain and preserve plants so that plants can carry out photosynthesis perfectly. Because if there were no plants, all of us who live on this earth would never be able to live. Because plants play an important role in life on the entire surface of the earth. May be useful!

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Engineering Student of Airlangga University in Indonesia. Love to share knowledge