The Impact of Domestic Waste and the Right Way to Manage it

Impact of Domestic Waste – For some Indonesian people who are consumptive by always buying various household products such as bathing, washing, cooking needs, most of which are plastic-based products, the amount of household waste is increasing every time.

The habit of this consumptive society creates various impacts on the environment related to the waste generated from various instant products packaged in plastic. Moreover, the habit of the people who are still not regular when disposing of garbage in its place adds to the series of problems that must be overcome by the government to manage the waste from the products consumed by the community.

For this reason, as citizens who care about environmental health and want to see the clean face of the country free from various wastes, the impact will certainly affect community activities which are disrupted by the abundant amount of waste that causes odors and is difficult to decompose, we must also take a stand to protect the environment is kept clean and well maintained.

So in this discussion, we have provided related information regarding the domestic waste generated by these various household products and how to manage it properly so that the environment can be better preserved in the future.

Furthermore, we have presented information related to the impact of domestic waste and can be seen below!

Definition of Domestic Waste

Waste is a substance that arises in the production process, both industrial and domestic (household). Waste can be trash, toilet water, and many other household wastes.

Solid waste is better known as waste whose appearance is often undesirable because it has no economic value. In terms of chemistry, this waste consists of chemicals, organic compounds, and inorganic compounds. At certain concentrations and quantities, the presence of waste can have a negative impact on the environment, especially human health, therefore waste management is very important. The level of risk of poisoning caused by waste depends on the type and characteristics of the waste.

Regulation of the Minister of Industry and Trade of the Republic of Indonesia concerning Procedures for Importing Waste 231/MPP/Kep/7/1997 Article I states that waste is used goods or leftover material from an activity or production process, whose function has changed.

After that, Government Decree No. 18/1999 Jo.PP 85/1999, waste is defined as residue or waste of commercial activities and/or human activities. In other words, waste is the residue of an activity that is no longer useful or has economic value.

In the book Quality Control of Agricultural Products, Prof. dr. Bernal Saragih, SP, M.Si (2020:139) stated that based on the source, the types of waste can be divided into urban waste, industrial waste and agricultural waste.

Of the three types of waste, household waste is the easiest to find around us. Domestic waste is waste generated by urban and household activities.

The definition of household waste is mentioned in the book Theoretical and Practical Reviews of Sustainable Environmental Management Policy, Dr. Albert Napitupulu, SE, MSi, ‎Dwi M Nastiti (2019: 16).

Municipal waste is waste generated by households. Waste can come from residential areas such as places of business, markets or workplaces, hotels, agencies (eg government and private offices) and tourism.

In addition, this book also states that household waste can be in the form of solid and liquid waste. The following are examples of household waste and its forms:

  • Household solid waste can be in the form of organic waste. It is difficult for microorganisms to break down the waste. For example plastic bags, drink containers, mineral water bottles, etc.
  • Household liquid waste in the form of faeces, detergent water, oil, paint and others. If the waste is absorbed into the soil, it will damage the soil water content and can kill microorganisms in the soil.

Types of Domestic Waste

Household waste (Domestic waste) is divided into two main categories, which are separated according to the form of waste produced.

1. Liquid waste

Domestic liquid waste, as the name implies, is liquid waste that arises from various activities or daily needs of the community. There are many examples of liquid waste, starting from washing water, water used to wash clothes, leftover food in liquid form, to water used for bathing you and your family.

Various wastes from these activities contain chemicals that are not environmentally friendly and can cause health problems for humans. This is due to the different liquid residues, namely soap, detergent and cooking oil residues.

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2. Solid Waste

Solid waste is various goods or materials that are no longer used or needed. Municipal solid waste tends to pollute the environment more because of its larger size than liquid waste. Solid waste is also more commonly classified as household (Domestic) waste.

This type of household waste can be divided according to its recycling capacity.

3. Organic Waste

When preparing food, it is bound to produce organic waste, because there are always leftover vegetables or seasonings that cannot be used for cooking. Even if eating, household waste can range from rice to animal protein bones.

Organic waste itself is waste generated in households that can decompose and decompose by itself. It can be said that this type of organic waste is generally more environmentally friendly than other types of waste.

4. Inorganic waste

In contrast to organic waste, which can and does decompose more quickly, inorganic waste is generally more dangerous for the environment because it is difficult to decompose and decompose. The ability of inorganic waste to decompose itself can take up to thousands of years. An example of inorganic waste is plastic waste.

Inorganic household waste is certainly very easy to find. Plastic bags used to buy vegetables or fruits can turn into inorganic waste when disposed of. Laundry soap and even used detergent packaging are inorganic waste which can be very harmful to the environment if not handled properly.

Impact of Domestic Waste on Community Health and Environment

The environment is one of the areas most affected by the presence of domestic waste if not handled properly. This is because the disposal of urban waste such as liquid and solid waste can cause environmental changes which also affect the state of the environmental ecosystem.

Following are the more obvious environmental impacts of household waste. Are there any environmental impacts from the waste that you are already starting to see and feel? The following is information regarding the impact of domestic waste on public health and the environment:

1. Changing Soil Fertility

The chemicals in detergents and other types of soap residue can actually affect soil acidity or soil pH. When acidity changes, soil fertility can also change. This is because acidity greatly affects the absorption of nutrients in the soil. This effect can occur when household waste is simply thrown away or hits the ground.

Have you ever been annoyed because the plants you planted are difficult to grow? The reason may be due to the effect of household waste falling on the ground. The chemical content of household waste that is absorbed into the soil often makes the soil less fertile, which in turn makes it difficult for your plants to grow optimally. 

2. Destruction of animals and plants

Areas with very poor urban waste management can be killers of suburban populations. Domestic waste not only affects humans, but is likely to kill animals and plants as well. This can happen when animals eat chemical compounds in municipal waste. Animals can die because the chemical content is toxic. The same goes for when large amounts of household waste are absorbed into the ground. Soil fertility and acidity change, making it difficult for plants to grow properly, as explained in the previous section.

3. Deoxygenation of water

Household waste is material that contains large amounts of chemicals. When these chemicals come into contact with water, such as rivers or lakes, the quality of these water bodies changes in a negative direction, because exposure to large amounts of these chemicals in water bodies can reduce the oxygen levels of the water. Oxygen levels that continue to fall will endanger the entire aquatic ecosystem if it remains stagnant for a long time. Fish, which used to be a source of livelihood and food for residents living near water bodies, eventually died.

Health effects of household waste

Exposure to chemicals from properly treated household waste ultimately affects human health. People living in areas with poor municipal solid waste management rarely experience further health problems

These health problems can be caused by liquid and solid waste. In the case of the two types of municipal waste, the effect of solid waste on decomposition is stronger. This is because this type of household waste emits toxic gases such as ammonia, methane, or sulfuric acid when decomposed.

Below are various health impacts that can be caused by household waste.

1. Itching

These health problems are easily caused by contact with water contaminated with liquid waste. You may not only have hives, but also other, more serious skin irritation problems.

2. Diarrhea

Liquid toilet waste, such as faeces, mixes very easily with other liquids. If so, be prepared to be exposed to E.coli bacteria or other bacteria that can cause diarrhea when your body comes in contact with them.

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3. Typhus

The slum living environment is often considered as one of the causes of typhus. However, the real cause is household waste that is not handled properly in the environment. This household waste can become an intermediary for the spread of E.coli and salmonella bacteria which in turn trigger typhoid fever.

4. Liver and Kidney Disease

Exposure to chemicals and toxic substances from liquid or solid household waste can irritate your body’s vital organs. One of the organs most susceptible to this harmful substance is the liver and kidneys. Liver and kidney functions are more easily decomposed when exposed to domestic waste for a long time.

Proper Method of Domestic Waste Management

There are several ways to deal with household waste. The recommended waste handling methods for proper domestic waste are as follows:

1. Do Sorting

Waste processing can be done by sorting organic and inorganic waste from each household. Households who own land can process wet waste into plant-friendly compost, while dry waste such as paper, bottles, plastic and cans should be sorted before being disposed of, because some waste can be recycled or managed again and what cannot be recycled can be discarded.

2. Giving a Container

Every family must have a container for collecting garbage, the container is placed in front of the house in the yard or on the side of the road to facilitate collection and transportation. The purpose of this bin is to sort waste based on material to facilitate further processing.

Providing a container, which is a method of temporary storage of waste before being transferred to a temporary disposal site. To avoid emissions or odors that are harmful to the environment and respiration, all waste should be stored in closed, non-polluting and waterproof containers that can be emptied and transported easily and quickly, cheaply and easily recovered.

3. Collection

To overcome the problem of urban waste, waste is collected by cleaners who visit the place of origin of the waste and deliver it to the TPA. Another alternative collection model is the Direct Community model (a feature where waste is collected from any common point and transported directly to landfills without transportation).

4. Waste management with the 3R concept

Management efforts are expected to significantly reduce the amount of waste from the point of origin to the final storage location. There are several ways to deal with waste reduction which are better known as the 3R principle, namely Reduce, Reuse and Recycle.

In the case of liquid waste, household waste treatment can be carried out by constructing drainage channels and impregnation tanks with the following rules:

  • Do not contaminate nearby drinking water sources, including surface and underground water.
  • Does not pollute the earth.
  • Avoid spreading hookworms in the soil.
  • To prevent the breeding of flies and other insects.
  • Does not produce a disturbing odor.
  • The building is made only of materials that are easily available and cheap.
  • The minimum distance between the water source and the infiltration pond is 10 m

The simplest management method is to use sand and floating objects through sand traps and sieves. Floating objects can be removed with a relaxing bath specifically designed to remove oil and grease. Sludge from settling tanks is first stabilized in sludge decomposition troughs, where the sludge is compacted and more stable, then dried and discharged.

Secondary treatment is carried out with special filters to remove organic matter through oxidation. Level 3 controls are for cleaning only. The treatment method used depends on local conditions, such as sunlight. High temperature can be used.

Human waste such as faeces and urine during the construction of latrines. Sanitary toilets are a way of disposing of human waste so that it does not harm health and the environment. Then a septic tank is made which is connected to a pipe channel.

Hopefully the information above helps friends, Sinaumed’s adds

your understanding of the importance of household waste management in maintaining the ecosystem so that your home is safe from natural disasters and kept clean.

Conclusions regarding the Impact of Domestic Waste

This is a brief discussion of the impact of domestic waste on public health and the environment. Not only discussing the definition of domestic waste, but also discussing the types of domestic waste, their impact on health and the environment and the proper management method so that the waste can be reused.

Learning about domestic waste is very important considering the current polluted world environmental conditions are a warning to world citizens to care more about the environment and help deal with it so as to create a healthy, clean and unpolluted environment in the future.

This is a review of the negative impact of domestic waste on public health and the environment.