The definition of Muslim
Mushrik is a term in which a person associates partners with Allah and is contrary to the teachings of
monotheism which unites Allah. The word shirk itself comes from the word syirkah or fellowship,
which is to associate or make a counterpoint to the laws of other teachings apart from the teachings or laws
Shirk is also a moral that goes beyond the limits of the rules and is contrary to the principle of
monotheism, namely serving, obeying consciously, and voluntarily obeying a teaching or order other than the
teachings of Allah. In Islam, shirk is a sin that cannot be forgiven except through repentance
and leaving polytheism as far as possible. polytheism itself is then carried out by following
various teachings other than the teachings of Allah and consciously and voluntarily a person justifies the
teachings of shirk from within and carries them out in action and tries to uphold and maintain the
continuity of these shirk teachings).
Polytheism that occurs socially or communally (congregation or nation) is then explained in Surah Ar-Ruum 31-32:
“…returning to repentance to Him and fearing Him and establish prayer and do not be among those who associate
Allah, (Ar-Rum 30:31).
So group or sectarian fanaticism by being divided from the teachings of Allah which is a great polytheism
because it involves humans socially, including by creating groups or sects that are contrary to various
sources of Islamic law (Hadith and Quran) with the aim of their own group interests and creating rules
(based on the interests of the group). This situation also causes disintegration between
humans, if there is peace then what happens is pseudo peace, so that God’s will for humans cannot be carried
out because of chaos.
The purpose of sending the Apostles themselves is to reintegrate humans from a divided condition, back into
a united Ummah in one Principle or Principle (Rububiyah). One power or Mulkiyah and one
obedience or Uluhiyah. While these principles or principles already exist in this universe
along with the Books of Allah that were sent down as the source of all sources of Islamic law.
Characteristics of polytheists and
verses of the Qur’an about polytheists
The characteristics of a polytheist himself can be seen from how he worships God other than Allah SWT, with
the aim of worshiping other than the Creator, he also often obeys other than Allah SWT in terms of
disobedience and equates him with other than Allah SWT in terms of his love. For example,
polytheistic behavior or worshiping something other than Allah, while the heaviest behavior of polytheists
is worshiping something other than Allah SWT.
For example, in worshiping statues, tombs, stones, wood, or other objects, including humans.
Musyrik people also have the belief that these objects are gods who are able to create good and
evil. He also partners with God. Believing that there are creatures other than
Allah who also have many of the same characteristics as Allah is a polytheistic behavior, besides that
making religious leaders as God is also a polytheistic behavior. In the science of monotheism,
the behavior of deifying or deifying humans is also known as Ghuluw.
After understanding the meaning, find out more about this polytheist through the verses of the Koran.
Consider a number of verses of the Koran as follows:
1. Associating partners with Allah
As previously mentioned, associating partners with Allah SWT is a manifestation of the attitude of
polytheists. The polytheists themselves are placed in hell by Allah SWT. This is
also in accordance with the sound of surah Al-Maidah verse 72 as follows:
لَقَدْ كَفَرَ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ ۖ وَقَالَ الْمَسِيحُ يَا بَنِي
إِسْرَائِيلَ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ رَبِّي وَرَبَّكُمْ ۖ إِنَّهُ مَنْ يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدْ حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ
عَلَيْهِ الْجَنَّةَ وَمَأْوَاهُ النَّارُ ۖ وَمَا لِلظَّالِمِينَ مِنْ أَنْصَارٍ
Meaning: “Surely they have disbelieved those who say: “Indeed Allah is the Messiah son of Maryam”, even
though Al Masih (himself) said: “O Children of Israel, worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord”.
Verily, whoever associates (something with) Allah, then surely Allah has forbidden paradise for
him, and the place is hell, there is no helper for the wrongdoers.” As an illustration,
examples of polytheists are those who ask for help other than Allah, for example asking statues or dead
2. Charity But Riya
Musyrik people also generally do acts of worship with the aim of showing off or showing off.
In Islam this act is included in the minor shirk so that the practice in it is no longer counted as
a reward. In surah Al-Kahf verse 10 itself, Allah SWT says:
إِذْ أَوَى ٱلْفِتْيَةُ إِلَى ٱلْكَهْفِ فَقَالُوا۟ رَبَّنَآ master اتِنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ رَحْمَةign
Meaning: “Whoever hopes to meet his Lord, let him do good deeds and let him not associate anyone in worshiping
3. Hanging Something Not To God
A Muslim with polytheistic nature will tell all matters to other than Allah SWT. This then
makes them a people abandoned by Him. In surah Al-Israa ‘verse 22 itself Allah SWT then says as
لَّا تَجْعَلْ مَعَ ٱللَّهِ إِلَٰهًا ءَاخَرَ فَتَقْعُدَ مَذْمُومًا مَّخْذُولًا
Meaning: “Do not set up other gods beside Allah, so that you will not be disgraced and not abandoned (God).”
4. Worship But Not for Allah
Someone who has polytheistic nature can also be diligent in worship. However, the worship he
does is not solely for or because of Allah. In Surah Hud verses 15-16, Allah SWT says, “Whoever
wants the life of this world and its ornaments, We will surely give them a perfect reward for their work in
this world and they will not be harmed in that world. Those are the people who will not get
anything in the Hereafter, except Hell and what they have worked for in this world will disappear and what
they have done will be in vain.”
5. Loving Something Beyond His Love for
The characteristics of people who are polytheists or associate partners with Allah can also be seen from
what they love. Generally, someone with polytheistic nature will love something excessively
beyond his love for Allah SWT. In fact, true human love is then only intended by God alone.
In surah Al-Baqarah verse 165, Allah SWT then said:
وَمِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ مَن يَتَّخِذُ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ أَندَادًا يُحِبُّونَهُمْ كَحُبِّ ٱللَّهِ ۖ وَٱلَّذِينَ
ءَامَنُوٓا۟ أَشَدُّ حُبًّا لِّلَّهِ ۗ وَلَوْ يَرَى
ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوٓا۟ إِذْ يَرَوْنَ ٱلْعَذَابَ أَنَّ ٱلْقُوَّةَ ل above
Meaning: “And among humans there are those who worship rivals besides Allah; they love him as
they love Allah. As for those who believe, their love for Allah is exceedingly great.
And if those who commit injustice know when they see the punishment (on the Day of Resurrection),
that all power belongs to Allah, and that Allah is very severe in punishment (they will regret it).”
Allah SWT does not forgive people who are polytheists and polytheists. In surah
An-Nisa verse 48, Allah SWT says:
ِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَنْ يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ ۚ وَمَنْ يُشْرِكْ
بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ افْتَرَىٰ إِثْمًا عَظِيمًا
Meaning: Surely Allah will not forgive the sin of shirk, and He forgives all other sins other than (shirk),
for whom He wills. Whoever associates partners with Allah, he has indeed committed a great
By understanding how big a sin you should avoid polytheism and polytheism. Thus, we will then
always be under the protection of Allah SWT.
Three Kinds of Mushrik
Musyrik people are those who believe in the existence of Allah SWT, but also still believe in other powers
besides Allah SWT. Sheikh Ibn Hasan Bisry At-Turjani also stated that there are three types of
polytheists. According to some scholars, these three groups include pure polytheists,
polytheists in deeds or believe in magical objects, and polytheists worshiping sacred places, trees, graves,
and taking allegiance to demons or jinns. Check out the more detailed explanation below:
1. Pure polytheists
A pure polytheist is a person whose actions and ways of worship are not in accordance with Islamic
religious beliefs. They deny religion, and prefer to follow acts that are not in accordance
with the faith committed by their ancestors. “From among them there are usually people who are
elders, as spiritual leaders for all the people in a village or village,” he said.
2. Deed polytheists
Deeds polytheists are people who claim to be Muslim, but in their acts of worship do not reflect a
believer. He recited the creed, fasted, prayed, gave alms and went on pilgrimage.
But even so, he also still believes in other things, such as still believing in magical objects,
keris, spears, tosan aji, or other objects that are considered to have supernatural powers. He
also likes to go to shamans or smart people.
3. Worship polytheists
Idolaters are ordinary Muslims who still go to sacred places, such as the graves of saints, not to make
pilgrimages but only to receive blessings. Most of them also do not understand Islamic beliefs,
so besides believing in God, they also believe in caves, trees or other places that are considered sacred.
They also make a pact with the guardian of a sacred place, it is like a mountain which they think
can give wealth. Thus they have also pawned part of their lives to be handed over to the caves
or mountain guardians or those to later receive wealth in return, even though they have to pay offerings, in
the form of sacrifices according to the agreement.
The difference between Musyrik and Shirk
Then what is the difference between Shirk and Musyrik? Musyrik are people who equate Allah SWT
with other than Allah with things related to the specialness of Allah. Mushrik can also be
interpreted as a person who turns something to other than Allah. They are those who associate
partners with Allah not only in I’tikad or beliefs, speech, and deeds. As for the
characteristics of polytheists, they include turning the form of worship to other than Allah SWT with the
aim of obeying other than Allah and equating their love for other creatures which is aligned with their love
for Allah. While Shirk is an act of associating partners with Allah SWT in terms of His
rububiyah, His uluhiyah, Asma (names) and His attributes. The most striking signs of shirk and
in accordance with the words of the Qur’an include walking not in the way of Allah SWT, majesty
and self-humiliation that depend on other than Allah SWT, also carry out laws that are produced other than
Allah SWT. Apart from that, a person who is shirk also runs unions with other than Him, he also
supports activities that are not pleasing to Allah SWT, and is afraid of other than Him, and tries for other
than Allah SWT.
Books Related to Musyrik
1. Live in Prayer
Praying is the nature of man as a servant. Not only aiming to fulfill dreams, prayer is a way
of establishing an intimate relationship with God. Therefore, the strings of words should also
be full of glory. This book of Life in Prayer presents all the beautiful prayers, dhikr,
blessings, and practices to treat anxiety. Starting from prayer for learning, mate, fortune,
self-protection, self-calm, plague, repentance, to many other specific and actual prayers that you need in
navigating the hopes and endeavors of life.
2. Introduction to Fiqh Rules
Fiqh rules occupy a very important position in the study of Islamic law. Fiqh rules are one of
the four important pillars of Islamic law. The fiqh rules are a collection of many fiqh issues
that can provide convenience for experts and practitioners of Islamic law in carrying out the process of
determining the law. Thus, the principles of fiqh can be used as a reference for thinking
(theoretical framework). There are already quite a number of books that discuss fiqh principles
and become a guide for students, especially students of the Sharia faculty, but those that explain in detail
starting from concept, history, comparison to implementation of fiqh principles both basic principles and
general and special fiqh rules are still rare. The book entitled “Introduction to the Rules of
Jurisprudence” can be read by students of the Sharia faculty at a number of universities in Indonesia.
In addition, this book can also be used by academics, researchers, observers and practitioners in
the field of Islamic law.
3. 50 Nabawiyah Rules for Soul and Life
This book is entitled, “50 Nabawiyah Principles” written by DR. Umar bin Abdullah Al-Muqbil.
A scholar as well as a prolific writer. Previously he successfully presented a book,
“50 Rules of the Qur’an.” And, this book is a part of the previous book. The
practical value of this book is a feature of its own, because the author presents implementative
explanations for immediate practice in everyday life. It is very visible that the author
understands the actual world with all its problems. With nabawiyah rules, the complexity can be
explained. With the scattered Nabawiyah rules, they can be put together. With
Nabawiyah rules that are disconnected can be reconnected. And, this is one of the uniqueness
that exists in Islamic law, not found in any religion. This book is presented in a language
that is easy to understand. Inevitably, this book deserves your possession.
4. Common Sense Muslims
The more modern the times do not guarantee that humans will be smarter in thinking and do not guarantee
that humans will become wiser in what they do. In fact, humans are increasingly out of control
and increasingly wild towards themselves (read: lust). Humans often lose their minds.
It doesn’t mean that he doesn’t use his mind, it’s just that his mind is made shallow
(intentionally or not) so that reason (as a collective consciousness) cannot understand carefully,
precisely, and logically when making practical considerations. Ironically, in this chaotic age
people who are not ‘common sense’ are made role models by people who are not ‘common sense’.
So, life is getting chaotic, feet on heads and heads on feet. That’s why this book
comes to the lap of readers as material for reflection. The writings in this book are
accompanied by reflective stories that are hoped to be able to open our collective consciousness, especially
in religion. Also as a response to the ‘templates’ that have recently occurred in society and
are busy on social media, especially those related to religion. There is no intention to
patronize in this book, let alone self-justification. Everything is left to the readers to draw
conclusions. Hopefully the presence of this book can be useful! Everything is left
to the readers to draw conclusions. Hopefully the presence of this book can be useful!
Everything is left to the readers to draw conclusions. Hopefully the presence of this
book can be useful!