Scrotum Function – The male reproductive system is different from the female.
In men, there are organs called the scrotum, testicles, urethra, penis, and vas deferens.
The male reproductive function is to maintain and transport sperm and produce sex hormones.
One part of the male reproductive system that must be kept healthy is the scrotum.
The scrotum (scrotum) is a pouch of skin that hangs outside the body, located just below the base of
the penis. The function of the scrotum, or testicles, is to enclose the testicles. The
testicles, also known as testicles, are oval-shaped glands which are responsible for the production and
storage of sperm.
In addition to the production and storage of sperm, the function of the testes is to produce a number of
hormones, including testosterone, otherwise known as the male sex hormone.
The scrotum is located on the outside of the body because it has to maintain a slightly lower temperature
(about 2 degrees Celsius) than the rest of the body. Lower or cooler temperatures are intended
to help maintain sperm production. Now, let’s explore the function of the scrotum in men and a
list of diseases that can affect this important organ!
The main function of the scrotum is to cover the reproductive organs, namely the testicles and other
components in them. This organ is also responsible for maintaining the temperature of the
testicles for smooth hormone production and sperm maturation.
The temperature in the testicular area must be slightly below body temperature for normal sperm production.
To maintain temperature, special muscles in the scrotum wall contract and relax. The
goal is to bring the testicles closer to the body to warm up or away from the body to cool down.
The male reproductive system consists of internal (inside the body) and external (outside the body) parts.
These organs help the body to urinate and have sex. Another part of the male
reproductive system that also plays an important role is the scrotum. Here are some important
functions of the scrotum that you need to know:
1. Maintain and Protect the Testicles
According to medical science expert Johns Hopkins, the scrotum is a pouch of skin that hangs down at the
back of the penis. Its function is to support and help protect both testicles. The
function of the testicles is to produce sperm.
2. Testicular thermoregulation
In terms of temperature, the testes themselves are usually cooler than the inside of the body.
This is why the scrotum is located outside the body. The scrotum contains many nerves
and blood vessels, as well as the temperature-regulating organs of the testes.
Special muscles in the scrotal wall can contract (tighten) and relax, bringing the testes closer to the body to
maintain a constant temperature.
3. Affects Sexual Function
Common triggers for scrotal spasms include sexual arousal, cold temperatures and sports activities.
The relatively cool temperature of the scrotum is thought to be important for sperm
The wall of the scrotum is a thin layer of skin covered with smooth muscle tissue (dartos fascia).
The skin here contains more pigment than the surrounding area and has more sebaceous
(oil-producing) and sweat glands.
In addition to sperm, the testes also produce male hormones called androgens. Androgens control the development
of the male reproductive system and play a role in male puberty, especially by regulating the antennae and vocal
Testosterone is the most common form of androgen in the scrotum. It is responsible for the
development of the male sex organs and sperm production. Released by Live
Sciences , the testes in a healthy male can produce around 6 milligrams of testosterone per day.
However, this is not always the case.
“The testicles produce an average of 200,000 sperm per minute.” said dr. Philip Werthmann,
urologist and director of the Center for Male Reproductive Medicine and Vasectomy in Los
Various Kinds of Health Problems in the Scrotum
There are several types of health problems that are common in the scrotum. If this happens,
the function of the scrotum to support male sex can be disrupted. Here are some abnormalities
and possibilities that can occur in the scrotum:
The first disease risk, namely epididymitis. Released by Sciencedirect ,
epididymitis is inflammation or infection of the epididymis. This is a long tube that runs
the length of the testicle.
Epididymitis can be caused by sexually transmitted diseases, trauma, side effects of the vas deferens, and
other problems. Symptoms of epididymitis include pain (mild to severe), swelling of the
testicles or scrotum, nausea and vomiting, and fever.
Hydrocele is the accumulation of fluid around the testicles and is a risk factor for diseases related to
the scrotum. It can affect one or both testicles, possibly causing swelling in the scrotum and
Hydroceles are usually not painful or dangerous and may not require treatment. However, any
swelling of the scrotum should be treated by a doctor. Quoting from the Mayo
Clinic , sometimes a hydrocele can cause symptoms other than swelling, mild pain, tenderness, or redness
of the scrotum.
Hydrocele is more common in babies with a hole between the stomach and scrotum. However, when
men experience hydrocele, it is usually due to trauma, inflammation, or infection of the testicles or
In Urology, a varicocele is an enlarged or dilated vein in the scrotum. Usually this condition
is painless and harmless. However, this can lead to reduced sperm production and reduced sperm
quality. Thus causing infertility in men.
Occasionally, a varicocele can cause symptoms such as pain and swelling. Although most
varicoceles do not require treatment, some require surgical treatment.
4. Testicle Pain
Testicular and scrotal pain can cause pain around the male genitalia. According to
Emedicine Health, this disease can be caused by kidney stones, infections and inguinal
hernias. It can also cause pain in or around the testicles and scrotum. If you
experience sudden testicular pain, go to the hospital immediately to avoid testicular
Orchitis is inflammation of one or both testicles. Often it is caused by a bacterial or viral
infection. Mumps is a common cause of orchitis. Sexually transmitted diseases,
such as gonorrhea and chlamydia, can cause orchitis which causes pain in the scrotum. Signs and
symptoms of orchitis include testicular and scrotal pain as well as pain and infertility. Often
this can be treated with home remedies.
6. Sperm Cyst
At the Cleveland Clinic, a sperm cyst, also known as a spermatocele, is a disease risk in which a fluid-filled
cyst forms in the epididymis.
Small cysts are usually painless. Large cysts can cause pain or heaviness in the testicles,
affected scrotum, and swelling above and behind the testicles.
If you have large seminiferous tubules and are experiencing pain or other symptoms, surgery may be an option.
7. Testicular torsion
Another risk of disease related to the scrotum is testicular torsion. This occurs when the
testicle changes direction in the scrotum, cutting off its blood supply. Symptoms of testicular
torsion include scrotal pain and swelling, and this requires immediate medical attention.
However, testicular torsion is rare and is usually corrected by healing the testicle.
8. Constipation and Kidney Stones
Nerves to the testicles originate mainly from many places in the abdomen, including the kidneys and
digestive tract. If you are constipated and cannot have a bowel movement, the pressure from the
trapped stool can put pressure on the nerves and cause testicular pain.
The same thing happens if you have kidney stones. The nerves in this area can become inflamed,
causing testicular pain and other symptoms such as lower back pain, cloudy and smelly urine, frequent
urination, nausea and vomiting.
9. Inguinal hernia
An inguinal hernia is a condition in which the contents of the abdominal cavity (fat, intestines, etc.)
descend into the groin (inguinal) area. This condition is often referred to as “it will be
While generally harmless, inguinal hernias can be uncomfortable and possibly painful, especially in the
testicles. Health problems due to weakening of the inguinal canal must also be treated
10. Testicular tumors
Testicular tumors are another cause of testicular pain that you should be aware of and aware of.
This occurs when the testicles develop abnormal cells for which the exact cause is unknown,
regardless of risk factors such as genetics (heredity) and age.
Apart from testicular pain, the presence of a tumor is characterized by other symptoms such as swollen
testicles and fluid in them. This condition must be treated immediately with medical attention
so that the tumor cells do not turn into cancer.
Causes of Itchy Scrotum
1. Fungal Infection
Mold thrives in warm, humid temperatures. Where else but in folds of skin, under underpants
and dirty skin? When your scrotum feels itchy, this can be one of the reasons your scrotum has
a fungal infection. The fungus most often found in the scrotum is Trichophyton
rubrum , which usually affects the groin, testicles, inner thighs, and anus.
The characteristics of the limbs affected by the fungus are unpleasant itching, redness, blisters (due to
scratching) and causing irritation. This is why the skin on the back of the scrotum is an ideal
habitat for yeast to grow. A yeast infection that develops will cause itching and
2. Yeast Infection
If the scrotum itches, this is sometimes also caused by a yeast infection with Candida Albicans .
Usually this yeast resides in a woman’s vagina. However, it is not uncommon for
the male scrotum to be affected. Why do men get infected? That’s because sex
transmits the fungus from the vagina to the male genitalia.
3. Inflammation of the Genital Skin
An itchy scrotum and redness around the groin can be a sign that you are suffering from testicular
dermatitis or what is commonly called inflammation. Dermatitis can also be caused by allergies.
Possible allergies include allergies to chemicals that stick to the skin, namely: perfumes,
clothing dyes, plants, and even other things that can cause dermatitis.
4. Get pubic hair lice
Actually head lice not only grow on the hair on the head, but also on the pubic hair. These
lice find their way into pubic hair and feed on it by sucking blood around the genitals. If
your scrotum itches, you may have pubic lice. Usually, pubic lice are transmitted through
blankets, towels, and clothing.
How to Treat Pain in the Scrotum
There are several ways to treat a painful scrotum. Here are some ways you can try to treat
1. Ice Compress
Scrotal pain can be treated by applying ice to the testicles. By applying an ice pack, pain in
the testicles can be reduced. To do this, take ice and apply it to the scrotum for 30 minutes.
Repeat every two hours. As a side note, apply ice only after wrapping it in a towel or
cloth. Do not apply directly to the skin as it can cause dermatitis.
2. Hot Shower
The next way to treat scrotal pain is to take a hot bath. Hot baths can actually relieve pain
and speed up blood flow to the scrotum.
It is also possible to lie in bed and elevate the scrotum to relieve scrotal pain. Roll up the
handkerchief and place it under the scrotum. Doing this exercise will reduce pain in the
4. Wearing Athletic Support Underpants
The last way to treat pain in the scrotum is to wear sports underwear. The use of these pants
is to avoid further damage to the testicles. Wearing these pants will also help relieve
discomfort from scrotal pain.
In addition to the method above, by taking reliever drugs. Scrotal pain due to inflammation
can often be improved by taking pain relievers, such as ibuprofen or paracetamol.
In addition, the doctor will also prescribe other drugs, such as antibiotics, if an infection is found
caused by a testicular infection. However, in some cases, the doctor will also recommend
surgery to remove the fluid or remove the tumor.
In an emergency, such as testicular torsion or a twisted testicle, this condition requires surgery to restore
blood flow to the testicle to prevent permanent testicular damage that can lead to infertility.
In addition to knowing the different causes and treatments for testicular pain, you should also have your
testicles checked regularly. Routine check-ups can help detect diseases that cause testicular
Here are some good ways to check your scrotum that you can do yourself:
- Stand in front of a mirror and hold and lift your penis to see if there are any unusual lumps
on the skin of the scrotum.
- Touch both testicles with your fingertips. Look and feel for any lumps,
differences in size, or differences in shape between the testicles. Also check the top and
back of each testicle for the epididymis.
- If during the self-examination you notice any deformity or abnormality, such as a lump in the
testicle, seek medical attention to be examined and determined the cause.
Not only that, if you experience testicular pain that recurs or doesn’t improve even though you have taken
medication, immediately consult a doctor to get the right treatment and medication.
How to deal with an itchy scrotum
Scratching the scrotum will only spread the infection and possibly even cause another new infection.
Better yet, consult a trusted dermatologist, that’s how you will get there. Here are
some things you can do to prevent itching on your scrotum:
- Clean the genital area and groin every day. Use antiseptic soap to prevent
lice and fungus.
- Do not let the genitals get wet, always dry them after contact with the genitals with a clean
towel or tissue.
- Use clean underwear, change at least 2 to 3 times a day.
- Wear cotton clothes to absorb sweat and avoid irritation around it.
- Avoid having sex with the opposite sex if you still feel itchy (avoid itching caused by newly
- Use clothing cleaners that are safe from chemicals so that the irritation doesn’t get worse.
- If itching persists, it’s better to consult a doctor or buy a prescription for genital
itching at the nearest pharmacy.