Customs and habits can be a factor that hinders social change. Overall, there are 9 factors that hinder social change.
Social change cannot be avoided from social life. Even so, these changes can be slow, due to a number of factors that influence it.
Social change has 4 characteristics that are most commonly known, according to the sociologist, Selo Soemardjan . First, people feel social changes in their environment, be it slow or fast. This change is relentless.
Second, when changes are experienced by social institutions, there will also be changes in other social institutions. Third, disorganization can occur if social change takes place very quickly in a community group. However, the nature of this disorganization is only temporary.
Fourth or last, changes can occur in the material (material) and spiritual fields. These two fields have a reciprocal relationship.
Definition of Social Change
Etymologically, social change means changes in various social institutions that affect the social system of society, including values, attitudes, patterns, behavior among groups in society.
Priotr Sztompka describes social change as a change that occurs within or includes a social system, with the explanation that there are differences between the state of certain systems at different times.
The basic concept of social change relates to three criteria including:
- The study of differences, in the sense of being able to see differences or changes in the condition of the object that is the focus of the study. These studies must be carried out at different times, in the sense that comparative studies are carried out in different time dimensions.
- Observations on the same social system, in the sense that the object of the comparative study must be the same object. So the discussion of social change is always related to the dimensions of space and time.
- The spatial dimension refers to the area of social change and the conditions that surround it. Of course, this dimension cannot be separated from the historical aspects that occurred in the region. The time dimension in the sense of social change looks at the past (past ), present ( present ), and future ( future) . From time to time will be compared so that social changes can be found.
In the process of social change there are also drivers (reinforcers) and barriers to social change. This is caused by several factors.
The driving factors make the process of socio-cultural change faster, while the inhibiting factors make the process of social change slower and even fail.
Inhibiting Factors of Social Change
The following are the inhibiting factors for socio-cultural change
1. Lack of Relationships with Other
Communities Communities that are less connected with other communities experience slow change. This is because these people do not know the development of other communities that can enrich their own culture.
They are trapped in their culture and patterns of thought that are still simple. For example, ethnic groups who still live in the interior.
2. Traditional Society
In general, traditional society holds strongly the existing customs. They reject all new things related to social life. Traditions and customs are glorified. This attitude prevents the community from progressing.
3. Low Education
People with low education generally cannot accept new things. Their mindset and perspective is still simple.
They are generally reluctant to follow the existing changes. That is, society is static and does not experience significant changes.
4. There is a strong vested interest in a group of people ( vested interest )
The existence of a strong vested interest in a group makes it difficult for change to occur. This is because each group that has enjoyed its position will reject all forms of change.
They will try to maintain the existing system. They are afraid that any change will change their position and status in society.
5. Fear of Unsteadiness in Integration
The creation of integration is the hope and aspiration of society in general. Therefore, integration is something that is protected by society. Everything new is rejected to avoid swaying in the integration of society.
6. Bad Prejudice Against Foreign Cultural Elements
Such attitudes are often found in societies that have been colonized by foreign nations. Past experiences cause them to always have a bad attitude towards foreign cultures.
As a result, they reject all new things, especially from foreign nations, even though it will bring changes for the better.
7. Ideological Barriers
Ideological change is very difficult to do. Why is that? Everyone views ideology as the most basic way of life.
Therefore, ideological changes are not possible, especially in traditional societies when ideology is firmly held in social life.
8. Ingrained Customs and Habits
Habits are patterns of behavior for community members to fulfill their basic needs. If then these behavioral patterns are no longer effective in meeting needs, a crisis will occur.
For example, in the adoption of innovations which can then replace human labor, it is not always easy to happen because on a certain side technology can replace the presence of human labor so that effectiveness and savings occur. On the other hand, it raises a new problem, namely unemployment.
9. The Value That Life is Essentially Bad and Impossible to Improve
This value is owned by some individuals who have a background of failure so that they feel that in essence life is bad and cannot be repaired.
Feelings of despair and giving up are more dominant than wanting to get up and try something new again. So this value is a barrier to social change.