Indonesia and the World’s Deviant Sects – Heretical sects or heresies are theological or religious views or doctrines that teach or believe in things that are considered contradictory and contradictory to beliefs, or systems of any religion that are considered orthodox or legally considered true teachings.
In the sense of this heretical sect, heresy is a view or doctrine on politics, philosophy, science and art that is different from what is present in general and is considered authoritative. These heretical sects had appeared in the world and in Indonesia. Then what are these cults? Listen to the end of the article, OK!
Definition of Etymological Heresy
Heresy comes from the Greek, namely heresy, hairresis, which means the choice of belief or faction of adherents who fight. The word heresy is widely used by Irenaeus in his treatises, especially on Contra Haereses or against heretics.
Irenaeus describes his position as an orthodox and his position which later developed into that of the early Christian Church, from which the word orthodox originates.
Thus, the assumption appears that heretical teachings actually do not have a fully objective meaning. This category, however, only appears as the opposite of the position of certain sects that have previously defined themselves as orthodox.
Therefore, any non-conformist views in any field, not only religion, can also be considered heresy, by other disciplines who believe that their views in certain fields are correct or orthodox views. People who believe in these heretical teachings, usually do not think that the beliefs they profess are heretical.
Heresy in the World
Adherents of heretical teachings believe that the existing religious system is inadequate and not in accordance with the values that should exist. Therefore, the adherents of these heretical teachings, try to change the world by presenting values that are supposed to exist.
However, some of the thoughts of adherents of these heretical teachings are extreme and full of normalized criminal acts that are dangerous.
Even though they are dangerous and extreme, in fact these cults are mushrooming and are present in many parts of the world. Here are some cults that are considered dangerous.
1. Children of God stream
The Children of God cult is spread across America and is known as the most dangerous cult in the world as well as one of the most heinous sex cults.
The Children of God cult requires its followers to have free sex with other members of the Children of God. not only that, followers of the teachings of the Children of God also require their followers to have sex with children.
Followers of the Children of God sect believe that the ritual will bring them great merit. Because of this belief, the followers of this cult do not even hesitate to torture, kidnap and even kill many young women.
2. The Ku Klux Klan
The KKK is a heretical sect that is considered dangerous and was originally a collection of Christian extremists who only had a small number in Europe.
Even though at first it was very small and had only a few members, The Ku Klux Klan eventually grew rapidly after the civil war broke out and even the KKK had around four million followers at that time.
This stream is known for having a uniform that is quite conspicuous, white robes with masks that cover the entire body to hide the identity of its members.
As the ruling sect at that time, the KKK had taken extreme measures. Like killing religious leaders, killing people with different beliefs to killing black people.
3. Branch Davidians
Adherents of the Branch Davidians believe that they are intermediaries for the coming of the end of the world on earth. Because they believe in intermediary doomsday, the adherents of the Branch Davidians also try to bring about the doomsday on earth.
The method is to do anarchic things, such as causing chaos, killing, burning, and bombing in American territories.
Because of the chaos and anarchism created by the Branch Davidians, the followers of this cult became fugitives in America. Then this cult ended, when the last 76 members decided to commit mass suicide by blowing themselves up in a building.
4. Order of the Solar Temple
This cult first appeared in 1984, its leader named Joseph di Mambro and Luc Jaouret who led this sect secretly. However, in 1994, the two cult leaders of the Order of the Solar Temple spread their teachings openly.
This cult is considered as one of the most dangerous cults, because a case occurred. The case was when the followers of the Order of the Solar Temple killed a baby, because they thought that the baby was the incarnation of the anti-christ.
Since the infanticide case, many members of the Order of the Solar Temple have committed suicide. They consider the suicide act as the main ritual, so they can enter heaven.
After killing many of its members, about 100 other members were found dead because the leader himself killed the members in cruel ways such as being poisoned, shot and burned.
5. The Peoples Temple
The Peoples Temple was founded by a communist named Jim Jones who spread the teachings he believed in. However, Jim Jones had stumbled on cases of violence and immoral acts that made Jim Jones change his course of teachings.
After stumbling upon the case, Jim Jones moved and then settled in Guyana and changed the mission of his sect to become heretical, and spread hatred of high-ranking officials in America.
Because of this heretical understanding, Jim Jones and his followers at The Peoples Temple wanted to kill American officials. However, the assassination mission ended in mass suicide by 900 members of The Peoples Temple by drinking poisoned liquid.
6. Heaven’s Gate
One of the teachings that is considered dangerous in the Heavens Gate cult is that humans can enter heaven, if they die before the doomsday occurs. Because of this teaching, many members of Heavens Gate have chosen the easiest way to die by committing suicide.
Heavens Gate at that time was one of the most phenomenal cults in America. This cult, founded by former marshals from the US military named Herff Applewhite and Bonnie Nettles, were nuns interested in divinity and Bible prophecy. The two founders of Heavens Gate, met in 1972 and since then the two have known each other for a long time.
From Nettles’ meeting with Applewhite, Nettles then felt that he had been revelations about meeting Applewhite. Until both of them felt that they had known each other in a previous life.
The two then studied the King James Version of the Bible together, the Bible from the English translation and the Bible for the Church of England. By studying the Bible, both explore the new covenant and claim to have a mission in the prophetic and has a level of intelligence that exceeds other people.
Heaven’s Gate believes that the earth will be recycled and then cleaned and renewed. This cult also requires its members to forget the attachment that each member has with the world. Like friends, family, sexuality, work to money.
In 1997, it was reported that around 39 members of Heavens Gate committed mass suicide, due to teachings and orders from the head of Heavens Gate.
From this mass suicide case, many media started to say that Heavens Gate was one of the most dangerous cults in the world, especially around 1997.
7. Aum Shinrikyo
Apart from being present in the west, heretical sects were also present in Asia. Aum Shinrikyo is a cult that once existed in Japan and spread teachings about the destruction of the earth.
Before becoming a cult, Aum Shinrikyo was originally a group that was active and focused on meditation and yoga. However, slowly the Aum Shinrikyo group led by Shoko Asahara began to change direction.
The followers of Aum Shinrikyo hoped that the end of the world would appear for humans. The reason is because Aum Shinrikyo members believe that death for mankind is like a ticket that can take mankind to go and go straight to heaven.
In order to realize what the members of Aum Shinrikyo believed in, they then caused chaos and committed various crimes. The crimes committed were not too much different from other deviant sects, namely in the form of bombings, murders, robberies and kidnappings.
To eradicate the crimes committed by Aun Shinrikyo members, the Japanese government then intervened to handle this sect so that it would not develop further.
The Japanese government then arrested Ashara as the leader of Aum Shinrikyo. However, when he was tried, Ashara did not give any statement and never pleaded guilty. In 2004, Ashara was sentenced to death, but his execution was postponed until 2012.
Heretical sects in Indonesia
Not only do they appear in neighboring countries, heretical sects also often appear in Asia and even in Indonesia. Here are some cults that have existed in Indonesia.
1. The Jellyfish Kingdom
The cult of the jellyfish kingdom was first founded by a husband and wife named Rudi and Aisyah and then had a leader in Serang, Banten named Nurhalim.
Aisyah, as the founder of the jellyfish kingdom, believes that she is the figure of the Queen of the South who recognizes the Koran and Allah. However, he adheres to a religion called Sunda Wiwitan.
As the founder of the jellyfish kingdom, Aisyah admitted that she could take money from across countries by accessing banks overseas.
Initially, this sect spread its heretical teachings through social media, such as Facebook and Youtube. Through this social media, the jellyfish kingdom revealed a quite controversial statement that God has a tomb.
Not only that, the jellyfish kingdom also gave a statement that the Prophet Muhammad was actually female. The members of the jellyfish kingdom do not believe that the Kaaba is the direction of Qibla for Muslims, but that it is a place of idol worship. Because of these statements, the MUI then issued a fatwa against the Jellyfish Kingdom in 2018.
2. Puang La’lang or Supreme Master
Puang La’lang is considered a heretical sect in Indonesia, because Puang La’lang appointed himself as an Apostle. Not only claiming to be an Apostle, he also spread that there is God the Father, God Mama, God the creator, God Jin, God Satan, God Satan and God lust.
Maha Guru or Puang La’lang also spreads the belief that humans who have died will be raised by God to become gods. He also spreads that he has supernatural powers and claims to be able to extend the life of his followers.
It didn’t stop there, the Supreme Master had married several of his followers without guardians and without registration at the KUA. for members of the Puang La’lang each individual has a mandatory contribution from heaven’s chaos of IDR 10,000 to IDR 50,000, each member is also burdened with zakat funds of IDR 5,000 per kg of follower’s body weight.
Each member is required to deposit the dues as much as 2.5 percent of their income to the Supreme Master. Puang La’lang is also seen as arbitrarily interpreting the verses of the Koran and believing that there are other holy books besides the Koran.
3. Fajar Nusantara Movement or Gafatar
The Gafatar sect was founded by Ahmad Musadeq, in their Gafatar they combined Christian, Islamic and Jewish teachings. Masadeq as the founder of Gafatar admitted that he was a prophet by the name of Al-Masih Al Maw’ud and continued the teachings previously declared heretical by the MUI in 2007, namely Al Qiyadah Al Islamiyah.
Gafatar taught various deviant teachings in Islam, these deviant teachings were eliminating the obligation to pray the five daily prayers, then replacing the five daily prayers with night prayers and praying at sunrise and sunset.
Gafatar also replaced the shahada sentence, ignored the obligation of fasting as in the month of Ramadan, paid a sum of money to Ahmad Musadeq as the founder of Gafatar as penance.
This sect originates from West Kalimantan, precisely in East Mempawah Regency and the MUI has given Gafatar a heretical fatwa in 2016.
4. Salamullah or Community of Eden
In 1997, the Eden community was founded, which was first initiated by Lia Eden or Lia Aminuddin because she claimed to be Imam Mahdi and a spreader of God’s revelations.
Apart from claiming to be a spreader of God’s revelation, Lia Eden also admits that she is the reincarnation of the Virgin Mary, while her son, Ahmad Mukti, is the incarnation of Jesus Christ.
At first, Lia Eden invited a hundred people to become followers of Salamullah or the Eden community she initiated. However, the MUI immediately issued a heretical fatwa in December 1997 when Eden tried to find followers.
Due to the spread of heretical sects and cases of religious blasphemy, Lia Eden was in and out of prison in 2006 and 2009. Even so, until the end of her life, Lia Eden continued to adhere to the beliefs she carried.
Those are seven cults that have existed in parts of the world, starting from America, Asia and Indonesia. These cults are mostly extinct now, because people have realized that the teachings brought by these sects are cults.
Apart from the heretical sects that have been mentioned in this article, there are also other cults that are quite well-known in Indonesia as well as people who claim to be false prophets. If Sinaumed’s is curious and wants to know more about cults and others, Sinaumed’s can buy related books at sinaumedia.com.
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