Spinal Function – The spine has an important role to support the human body. By recognizing the structure of the spine, Sinaumed’s will be able to understand its function more closely and to anticipate disturbances that may occur.
Human Spine Anatomy
The spine is the main supporting structure in your body . Based on its shape, the vertebrae include short bones that are useful for connecting various parts of the movement system or also known as the musculoskeletal system.
The following is the structure or anatomy of the backbone which consists of a pile of 33 small bones, namely:
1. Small bony discs
In the spine, intervertebral discs or small bony discs stack together to form a canal.
The spinal canal is a tunnel that contains and protects the spinal cord and protects the nerves from injury.
These small bones also allow Sinaumed’s to perform various movements. However, the small bones at the bottom (sacrum and coccyx) are fused and immobile.
2. Cervical spine (cervical)
The cervical spine (cervical or cervical) is the topmost part of the spine which has seven vertebrae. The function of the cervical vertebrae is to rotate, tilt and nod the head.
The cervical spine forms a C-shaped inward so it is also known as a lordotic curve.
3. Mid back (thoracic)
The thorax or better known as the sternum of the spine has 12 small bones. Sinaumed’s’s ribs are attached to the mid back.
This section bends slightly to form a backward C shape which is also known as a kyphotic curve .
The main function of the thoracic spine is to support the ribs as well as protect the heart and lungs.
4. Lower backbone (lumbar)
There are five small bones that form the lower backbone. The lumbar spine is useful for supporting the upper part and being a link to the pelvic area.
The lumbar region has the function of supporting most of Sinaumed’s’ body weight . These bones help provide stability and mobility to the spine, as well as being the point of attachment for many muscles and ligaments.
Most back pain occurs in the lumbar spine.
The sacrum is an anatomy of the spine that is shaped like a triangle and is connected to the hip area. There are five short bones in the sacrum.
Its development begins when the fetus enters the uterus. The sacrum and hip bones form a ring called the pelvis.
The coccyx is made up of four small bones that form a small piece of bone at the bottom of the spine. Pelvic floor muscles and ligaments attach to the coccyx.
Then, there are also tissues that make up this backbone or spine, namely:
- Facet joints for stability and flexibility.
- Intervertebral discs, round pads for shock absorption in the spine.
- The spinal cord and nerves carry messages between the muscles and the brain.
- Soft tissue, consisting of ligaments, muscles, and tendons.
What is the Function of the Spine?
As with other types of castings, the backbone also has a very important function for the movement and growth of the human body. The main functions of the backbone are as follows:
1, As Body Support
The first function of the backbone is to support the human body. The cervical part has the responsibility to support the skull, while the thorax has the responsibility to provide stability and strength to the body. The lumbar part has the task of allowing more flexible movements but not rotating and at the same time to support most of the body weight.
The spine has a structure that fits perfectly to support the body and allows it to adapt to changes in Sinaumed’s’ body, such as during pregnancy or when he gains weight . When carrying heavy loads, the curvature of the spine will become larger so that the body becomes balanced and strong and able to support it.
2. Makes the body flexible and flexible in movement
The structure of the spine is irregular with the arrangement of tendons, muscles, ligaments, and so on which serves as a support to help the body move more flexibly and flexibly, such as stretching, bending, turning and leaning.
The cervical spine is responsible for assisting the movement of the neck and head due to the unique combination of the two bones in the cervical region , namely the axis and atlas.
3. Protects Nerves
The next function of the spine is to provide protection to the spinal cord and fine nerves. The spinal cord is an important part for controlling the function of the main organs of Sinaumed’s . In addition, certain shapes and positions of the spine and ligaments can form a protective network that has the ability to protect the spinal cord from being injured.
4. Produces Red Blood Cells
The spine contains a lot of bone marrow which produces red blood cells as well as minerals (Remember, we are not talking about the spinal cord or spinal cord). Bone marrow is in the interior cavity of the bones and consists of two types, namely red marrow and yellow marrow. Red marrow is responsible for making red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells. Meanwhile, yellow bone marrow contains high levels of fat cells and also produces white blood cells.
5. Main Organ Protector
Another function of the backbone is to protect the main organs. The skeleton protects by surrounding the main organs of the Sinaumed’s body . All human ribs attach to the spine, but only the top 7 pairs attach to the sternum. The ribs form the framework around the lungs and heart.
6. Vibration Dampers
The spine has the effect of damping vibrations when Sinaumed’s’s body moves like he is standing, squatting or sitting. This is due to the presence of pads in the form of intervertebral discs that are between the vertebrae and to prevent friction between one bone and another.
Spinal disorders or also known as spinal disorders are abnormalities in the bones that can affect the position and curvature of the spine. The spine itself has a function to support the upper body and to form body posture.
In general, a healthy spine is a spine that has an appropriate curve. However, if there is an excess of the curve in one part of the spine, then the function of the spine will be disturbed and can cause discomfort and even pain.
The backbone has 26 bones or also known as vertebrae . This spine has a function to protect and support the nerves and spinal cord. If there is an abnormality in the spine, there will be pain that can interfere with activities and damage that can limit Sinaumed’s’ body movements .
Abnormalities in the spine can be caused by many factors. Apart from that, there are also various types of spinal disorders that Sinaumed’s needs to know about.
Causes of Spinal Disorders
1. Certain Health Problems
Bone abnormalities can be triggered by various health problems. Among them are:
- Scheuermann’s disease or accelerated growth condition experienced before puberty;
- Cerebral palsy which affects the nerves and brain;
- Muscular dystrophy which causes muscle performance to weaken;
- Bone cancer that attacks the spinal area, requiring the patient to undergo radiotherapy or chemotherapy;
- Osteoporosis or thinning of the bones.
2. Genetic Factors
Spinal disorders can also be triggered by certain genetic factors. For example, when the spine in the body tends to be thinner than usual. Genetic conditions like this can make a person more susceptible to fractures or fractures and other spinal problems.
3. Congenital Abnormalities from Birth
When the child is still in the womb, it is possible that the spine does not develop properly. This is what causes the backbone to not fit and crooked.
4. Certain Injuries and Activities
Injuries can trigger spinal disorders. For example, injuries that can cause fractures or fractures that can cause bones to shift and bend. In addition, certain activities related to heavy loads on the spine can trigger disturbances in that area.
Various Disorders of the Spine
Spinal disorders can be divided into the following conditions:
Abnormalities in the spine can be seen from the posture that tends to stoop. This is due to the condition of the spine that is curved forward so that it looks bent. In fact, this condition can also cause the spine to appear to protrude in the back.
Common causes of kyphosis are porous bones, wrong posture, carrying too much weight, arthritis, tumors in the spine, spina bifida, spinal infections, congenital kyphosis, osteoporosis, and Scheuermann’s disease. Kyphosis can also cause pain in the spine.
Sufferers of lordosis have the shape of the spine that is excessively curved forward in the lower back. The condition of lordosis is often referred to as swayback which makes the buttocks appear more prominent. The spine is generally curved, but in patients with lordosis, the curve protrudes too much forward.
This condition can also cause pain. This spinal disorder can be caused by obesity, displacement of vertebrae, bone injury, muscular dystrophy, poor posture, osteoporosis, and discitis or inflammation of the space between the vertebrae.
In scoliosis, the spine tends to curve excessively to the side. Most cases of scoliosis tend to be mild, but the condition can get worse with age. This bone disorder can cause the spine to bend and can lead to paralysis and impaired lung function.
This problem is caused by the curvature of the spine which reduces the amount of space in the chest. In fact, a type of scoliosis called levoscoliosis causes the spine to bend to the left side of the body and is similar to the letter C.
Spondylosis bone disorder is also known as spinal degeneration which not only affects the spine but also the joints and bone bearings. Spondylosis can interfere with the movement of the spine and affect the nerves. This disorder is generally caused by a sedentary lifestyle, smoking habits, obesity, and old age.
The condition of spondylolisthesis is caused by a shift in the spine (vertebrae) from its original position due to stress fractures that are always repeated. The part of the spine most prone to spondylolisthesis is generally in the lower back. Even so, it is also possible if the area behind the neck and upper back is affected by spondylolisthesis.
Exercise For Spine Health
Keeping the spine strong and healthy is one of the keys to living a healthy and independent life in old age. One way to maintain a healthy spine is to do sports. Besides that, standing straight with a perfectly straight posture can also help the spine to stay in its proper position. Here are some recommended exercises to keep the spine strong and healthy.
Yoga is a sport that greatly maximizes the function and flexibility of the spine. Movements from yoga will train the flexibility and strength of the spine and practice stretching, thus providing space for all the muscles surrounding the spine to always move according to the joints. Some yoga poses that can maximize the function of the spine are half moon pose, balancing stick pose, cobra pose , and many more.
Apart from yoga, swimming is also a great choice of exercise to keep your spine healthy and strong. Swimming movements that pedal the arms and legs indirectly can help the spine to always stay in its perfect position. In addition, the body’s pressure on the water, one of which is by doing the back stroke, can provide maximum stretch and flexibility to the spine.
3. Run away
If yoga and swimming provide more benefits for bone flexibility, running sports can be done to train the endurance and strength of the spine. The reason is, running can strengthen the bearing between the segments in the spine.
4. Push Up dan Sit Up
Other types of exercise that can help train the spine to stay healthy and strong are push ups and sit ups. In fact, there are many muscles that are activated when Sinaumed’s does push-ups and sit-ups , namely the back, chest, shoulders, triceps, biceps, and also the abdominal muscles. The reason is, when doing push-ups and sit-ups, Sinaumed’s is forced to straighten his back, which in essence keeps the spine in the right position.
As with push ups and sit ups , squat movements are also useful for training the spine to stay strong and healthy. Doing squats regularly can also improve the performance of the muscles in the lower body, especially in the pelvic bones and coccyx. Squats can also trigger the release of hormones and the growth of muscle mass. In addition, practicing squats can also improve the body’s balance ability and shape the buttocks so that they become toned.