Forms of Social Change: Definition, Types, Factors, Examples

Forms of Social Change – Social change is a form of transition that changes people’s lifestyles and can continue to occur and change due to the dynamics of social life. Sinaumed’s, Maybe you can easily adapt to the environment without difficulty. However, some people struggle to adapt to changes in society, making them feel different and uncomfortable in a rapidly changing environment. So why is there this form of social change in society?

In social life, the form of change is a very interesting study. Starting from the emergence of forms of social change, it is possible to change the symptoms and structure of society. Whether we realize it or not, a form of social change must occur within human groups and has always occurred for centuries. We can see that the process of change is natural and natural with human nature.

Below is an explanation of the forms of social change that Grammeds needs to know in order to understand the processes that occur in human development from time to time.

Understanding Forms of Social Change

What is a form of social change? As already mentioned a little bit in the first paragraph, social change is a form of transition that signifies a change in the social conditions of society, whether big or small and internal or external. The following is a definition of a form of social change from experts in this field:

1. Hirschmann

Hirschman defines socio-cultural change as a phenomenon that is influenced by communication, methods, and people’s way of thinking. This includes the influence of internal and external factors. Internal factors can be affected by conflicts, population changes, revolutions, new discoveries, and more. According to Hirschmann, socio-cultural changes that are influenced by external factors can be caused by natural disasters, foreign cultural influences, wars and even climate change.

2. Max Iver

Max Iver is one of the sociologists who also talks about social and cultural change. Social culture is defined as social change with social relations.

3. Max Weber

Contrary to Max Weber’s opinion, socio-cultural change is a condition that occurs in society caused by dissimilarity with existing elements.

4. Gillins

This is different from Gillin’s view of social change as a way of life that is influenced by changes in material and cultural conditions, changes in geographical conditions, demography, idealism, and new discoveries.

5. Kornblum

Kornblum, socio-cultural changes are caused by changes in cultural composition. Be it gradual change or long term change.

6. Kingsley Davis

In human society, Kingsley Davis defines social change as changes that occur in the structure and functioning of society.

7. Selo Sumardjan

More simply, Selo Soemardjan stated that sociocultural change is a change in social institutions. From some of the opinions above, we can conclude that forms of social change are caused by structural changes and changes in social functions. When social change changes, it automatically affects the culture of the community itself.

8. William F. Ogburn

William F. Ogburn, social change focuses on technological conditions that bring changes in certain aspects of human social life. An example of this social change is the advancement of science and technology which has a major impact on people’s mindsets.

Factors Occurrence of Social Change

Forms of social change do not only occur without symptoms and encouragement. In fact, there are several factors that are the strongest for this social change to occur. The following are some of the driving forces of social change that need to be known in order to recognize signs of emerging forms of social change:

1. New Discoveries

The existence of new discoveries in a particular society will bring changes in social conditions. A new culture that can replace or blend into one.

2. Population Impact

The number of population can have an impact on social change because it can affect the structure and society. Population is also an advantage of how social change can occur, and the more people adopt a new culture, the easier it is for the old culture to be lost or replaced.

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3. The emergence of conflict

Conflict, competition, or conflict occurs naturally within certain social groups. Conflicts in society can occur because of pluralism or the emergence of a majority and a minority in a particular community. From these conflicts, social groups must find answers to these problems, which creates new cultures and new social phenomena.

4. There was a Revolution

Revolutions and rebellions can also influence the emergence of social change. This is because this phenomenon is a sign that something new needs to be done. For example, there are wars and natural disasters.

5. Openness of social class

The openness of social class can be a factor in social change, because the existence of social type has a big influence on reactions to new things. Influential people are those who are open and receptive to new things and can easily accept these changes. In an ever-changing society, social change is constantly developing and renewing itself. This is also discussed in John Scott’s book entitled Sociology of Social Change .

6. Achievement Motivation

People with achievement motivation means having the desire to progress and develop. This allows people to be more open to new things, because they are aware of changes for the better. This factor can have a positive impact on social change that occurs in society.

7. A More Advanced Education System

Talking about social change cannot be separated from the element of education which plays an important role in bringing about social change. The benchmark is the further development of education. That is, only education learns how to deal with change. The higher the quality of education, the more likely a person is to gain his own perspective and insight to embrace change.

Forms of Social Change

After experiencing the process of social change, new forms of social change are created that change according to the conditions that occur. The following are forms of social change that Sinaumed’s needs to know about:

1. Evolution and Revolution

a. Evolution

Evolution is social change that lasts a long time and occurs without the will of society itself. Subsequent evolutionary social changes are influenced by the urge of society to adapt to the times.

b. Revolution

Revolution is social change that occurs over a period of rapid and unplanned. Therefore, revolution is not evolution but social change.

2. Planned and unplanned

a. Planned Changes

This social change is said to have been planned because the change occurred in accordance with what was predicted or planned by the party making the change. The party making the change is called the change agent.

b. Unplanned Change

Social change is said to be unplanned because it occurs suddenly or without any prior planning. Unplanned forms of social change are usually championed or debated by affected communities.

3. Big and Small Changes

a. Small Changes

Small social changes usually occur in elements of change that do not have a big impact, such as fashion and lifestyle.

b. Major changes

Major forms of social change usually generate controversy among people because of their existence. In addition, major social changes require the participation of many people, which causes reactions and resistance from many groups. That is, social change is important and significant. No matter how big or small the change, social change is inevitable. Every minute there is social change discussed in the following social change theories and strategies.

Examples of Forms of Social Change

After understanding the meaning, factors, and concepts of forms of social change. Sinaumed’s also needs to understand the examples in practice in the field. The following are examples of forms of socio-cultural change from several case studies:

1. Examples of Forms of Major Socio-Cultural Change

Twenty years ago, Indonesian agriculture was still simple and manual. Starting from the nursery to planting, tending, caring for and harvesting rice, it’s very easy. But now it’s not anymore, it used to be grown in paddy fields, but now it can be grown indoors or with advanced technology.

In the past, planting rice by hand manually, now you can use a car engine. The same goes for harvest time. No longer harvested manually, but can be harvested automatically with a tractor. The world of agriculture is now increasingly sophisticated.

Of course, some people accepted this cultural change well, while others resisted it. This method was rejected by village farmers who were constrained by costs. This is because the machines used are expensive. However, some people who have money prefer this method because the process is fast.

2. Examples of Small Socio-Cultural Changes

Lifestyle changes are changes that don’t have a big impact. An example that we often see is a change in dress style. People dress without hijab. On the other hand, only a handful of people wear the hijab. Now it has changed, most of them use hijab in their daily life.

It is this headscarf that encourages people around us to wear the headscarf, not out of obligation, because of high environmental factors. But because of the influence of the environment and fashion. However, these socio-cultural changes did not cause major conflicts or contradictions in society.

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3. Examples of Forms of Socio-Cultural Change Influenced by Other Countries

As a colonial country that was once colonized by Western countries, it turns out that Indonesia has also experienced socio-cultural changes. One of the positive impacts is the transformation of science and technology. Currently, Indonesia is starting to introduce the newest and latest technology from Western countries.

Unfortunately, some people are attracted to the bad. For example, influencing the lifestyle of Westerners such as drinking alcohol, being influenced by social culture that is not aware of courtesy to parents, and influencing lifestyle.

4. Examples of Forms of Socio-Cultural Change in Religion

An example of social change related to religion is Islamic culture. Indonesia is known as an Islamic country which also experiences acculturation. Of course for Muslims, the tower is not something foreign to us, is it?

Some mosques have minarets. The word tower turns out to be a form of acculturation. Gus Muwafiq once told this about the origins of the use of minarets in every mosque. In the past, when Islam had not been introduced, our nation’s ancestors had their own beliefs in being social and cultured.

This means that before Sayidina Ali went to Persia, our nation’s ancestors had already believed in their god, namely worshiping fire. When Islam came, belief in fire began to disappear. However, in practice there are still some who believe in and worship fire in the area near or in front of the mosque, so a tall pillar is built for the fire which is finally named manoro.

The sage managed to put out the fire and minarets were built in all the mosques. After that, the world copied the minaret in every mosque. Well, this story shows that Indonesia has experienced a form of socio-cultural change before the colonial era.

5. Building

The Demak Mosque is one of the oldest mosques in Java. Yogyakarta also has Demak City as the first Islamic Mataram Mosque. In terms of buildings, these two mosques have a blend of the culture of our ancestors. For example, in the city of Demak, the roof is arranged like a Hindu temple in South Asia. On the other hand, the architectural pattern of the Islamic world also includes the Ottoman style with Byzantine, Indian and Shiro-Egyptian patterns. In fact, many mosque buildings were found which were influenced by Hindu-Buddhist architecture.

6. Examples of Socio-Cultural Changes in Old Javanese Culture During the Islamic Mataram Period

Socio-cultural changes have been found to have occurred since Islam, such as during the Mataram era. Sultan Agung has launched a policy of acculturation of ancient Javanese culture (Hindu-Buddhist era) with Islamic teachings. Sultan Agung’s policies have given birth to acculturation as follows:

Grebeg adapted for Islamic holidays. In other words, Eid al-Fitr and Maulid Nabi are called Grebeg Poso, and Grebeg Murid Gamelan Sekaten is played in Grebek Murid in the courtyard of the Grand Mosque. The year of Kaka (pronounced Saka), a relic of the Hindu-Buddhist era based on the course of the sun, the year of Kaka in 1633 AD shows that Saka in 15550 no longer counts the number of suns. Calculations are based on the moon’s journey with the Buddhist model year. The newly established year is called the Javanese Year and is still in use today.

7. Communication

So far, communication between humans is very easy because there is no good means of communication. If you want to invite someone to a meeting, they usually write to you in person or show up in person. When society changes, the process of technological change also affects the social and cultural conditions of human communication. Either way, now you can make direct calls, or even someone who already has WhatsApp can make an appointment through the messaging app.

8. Language

Most of the languages ​​used to speak in indigenous peoples use their respective regional languages. The difference is that the use of technology and social media has increased, and the language has changed. For example, if you initially attend primary and secondary schools in the area, then the language you use will be the local language, but if you study at a university, then you will start using Indonesian and adapt to the new environment.

However, this change also endangers the continuity of our national language in the future. Indonesia is rich in many languages, but when they decline and Indonesians stop using them to speak, those too will be forgotten and lost.

9. Agriculture and Plantation

More and more children are trying to become employees, and in the end there is a lot of uncultivated agricultural land. Indeed, to the extent that agricultural land is widely used and legalized. Ultimately, the land is sold for residential purposes, such as building or trading a house. Social changes and current views are changing the attitude of those who work from villages to cities abroad and become civil servants. The fact is, we cannot work and be healthy without food.

Well, that’s an explanation of the form of social change. Learning and appreciating social phenomena are endless. Because in essence humans are dynamic creatures, including socially. To better understand social phenomena, Sinaumed’s can look for reference sources in the sinaumedia book collection at www.sinaumedia.com , such as the following book recommendations on social change: Happy learning. #Friends Without Limits.