Pasak Bumi – Did Sinaumed’s know about the existence of a plant called pasak bumi? If you don’t know, that is normal because the existence of this plant is usually marketed in a state that has been processed into herbal medicine. However, if Sinaumed’s already knows how it looks, it can be an additional form of knowledge!
Pasak bumi is a type of herbal plant that grows around the Southeast Asian region, one of which is in Indonesia. The part of this plant that is most often used for herbal medicine is the root, which is a natural tonic for male vitality. When processed into an herbal medicine, it usually takes the form of energy drinks, herbs, tea, and coffee. So what exactly is this plant? What are the benefits and properties obtained from this herbal plant? How can cultivation be done so that this herbal plant does not become scarce?
So, so that Sinaumed’s understands, let’s look at the following review!
Get to Know What is Peg Bumi
Pasak Bumi or commonly known as Tongkat Ali is a plant that belongs to the Sapindales order with the Latin name Eurycoma Longifolia. This plant is usually found in the forests of the Southeast Asian region, including Indonesia and Malaysia. This plant is in the form of a tree with slow growth, generally has a height of about 15-18 meters and begins to bear fruit at the age of 2-3 after being planted. The age of this plant can even reach 25 years, but if it is used for commercial needs it will usually be harvested at the age of 4 years.
In the lowland areas of Sumatra and Kalimantan, this plant is considered a wild plant because there are so many of them. Therefore, the pasak bumi plant has various local names, namely Tongkat Ali, Lempedu Bitter, Bedara Puteh, Tongkat Baginda, Root Hides Seinang, Tungke Ali, Tung Saw (Thailand), Vomiting the Earth, and many others.
The root of this plant is the most efficacious, because it is considered to be a herbal medicine for male virility. But not only that, the root part is also often used to relieve pain in the stomach, improve appetite, cure fever, and inhibit breast cancer cells.
Based on pharmacological studies conducted by the Ministry of Forestry of the Republic of Indonesia, this pasak bumi plant contains 4 important compounds, namely:
- Canthin compounds , function to inhibit cancer cells.
- Eurycomanone derivative compound , functions as an anti-malarial.
- Quassinoid compounds , function as anti-leukemia and prospective for anti-HIV.
- Ethanol compound , as an aphrodisiac (raise passion).
Through various developing studies, it turns out that the bark and stems of this plant can be used to treat canker sores, fever, bone pain, stomach worms, and as a postpartum tonic. Then for the leaves can be used as an itchy pain medicine. Then, the flower parts can be used to treat headaches, bone pain, and stomach aches. Wow, there are so many benefits of this plant! No wonder it is called an herbal plant!
Taxonomy and Morphology of the Earth Stake
According to Susilowati (2008), the position of the classification of this pasak bumi plant is as follows:
The shape of this plant in general is like a tree, with a height of up to 10 meters. The compound leaf shape resembles an odd one, the stem is yellow, the bark is tough, and when consumed raw, the taste will taste bitter. Well, here is the detailed morphology of the pasak bumi plant:
Usually unbranched. But if there are branches, then the shape resembles an umbrella with a circular position ( rosette ). The stems are sturdy grayish brown and smooth.
The shape of the leaves of this plant is pinnately compound with an odd number. Usually about 0.3-1 meter long and 20-30 pairs of leaflets. The leaf stalks are blackish brown.
The flowers on this plant are monoceus and dioceus , but generally they are often found as dioceus . The color is orange-red, with flowers about 0.6 cm wide. The tips of the flowers have fine hairs and glandular bumps. In this case, there are 2 groups of ferns, namely male flowers which are unable to produce fruit; and female plants capable of producing fruit.
The fruits of this plant grow in clusters and are similar to date palms, but very small in size and egg-like in shape.
The shape of the roots of this plant is the same as the roots of plants in general. It is in this section that it can usually be used as herbal medicine, either by boiling it or by processing it in a special factory.
Benefits and Efficacy of Pasak Bumi
The pasak bumi plant is a herbal plant that has various benefits and properties. The most famous benefit of the existence of this plant is as a strong medicine for men. Then, are the benefits and efficacy only limited to that? Of course not!
Come on, consider the following description of what are the benefits and efficacy of the pasak bumi plant.
1. Increase Sexual Arousal
Previously it was described that this plant contains ethanol compounds which have a function as an aphrodisiac, namely to increase libido or sexual arousal, especially for men. This plant is considered capable of stimulating the production and performance of the hormone testosterone which is the sex hormone for men.
If a man lacks the testosterone hormone, it will not only have an impact on sexual desire, but will also be a cause of erectile dysfunction to impaired fertility in men. Various studies that have been conducted state that by consuming pasak bumi extract, especially for men, it can increase the hormone testosterone and sexual arousal.
Not only that, if you consume this plant extract regularly it can also increase the volume, concentration, and movement of sperm, so that it can increase fertility for men.
2. Relieves Stress
Many studies on this plant state that this plant is able to relieve stress. Yep, this plant has certain ingredients that can reduce the hormone cortisol in the body. This hormone is usually produced when someone is experiencing stress. Not only that, consuming the extract of the pasak bumi plant is also believed to improve one’s mood.
3. Inhibiting the Growth of Cancer Cells and Curing Various Diseases
It should be noted that this plant contains 4 compounds that are good for medicine. Three of the four contents of this compound can inhibit the growth of cancer cells and cure various diseases.
Call it the content of Canthin compounds which are known to have anti-cancer effects, so they can inhibit the growth of cancer cells in the body. Then there are also compounds derived from Eurycomanone , which functions as an anti-malarial. These derivative compounds are known to be able to lower blood pressure, eradicate the plasmodium parasite that causes malaria, and kill bacteria. Then, there are also Quassinoid compounds that function as anti-leukemia and are prospective for anti-HIV.
4. Lowers Blood Sugar Levels
In several countries such as Malaysia and India, this plant is used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes. There is a research which states that consuming pasak bumi on a regular basis can lower blood sugar levels in the body while improving the performance of the insulin hormone. The hormone insulin plays a role in controlling blood sugar levels in the body.
But unfortunately, this research is still in the form of small-scale research, so further research is needed to ensure the effectiveness and safety of this plant as a treatment for diabetes.
5. Increases Muscle Mass
The benefits of this plant as an herbal medicine is to increase muscle mass and physical performance. There is a research which states that by consuming 100 mg of pasak bumi extract per day for 5 weeks, the results can increase muscle mass and strength, especially for men.
Even so, if Sinaumed’s wants to use this plant extract as a supplement to increase muscle mass, it’s better to consult with your doctor first .
Benefits of Pasak Bumi Based on its Parts
1. Root Section
When mixed with other medicinal plants, such as cinnamon, it can be used as a healthy tonic, antidote for fever, healing wounds in the gums, and intestinal worms. This tonic is also beneficial for mothers giving birth.
2. Stem Section
Especially the bark can be used for blood coagulants for mothers giving birth, treating bone pain, increasing stamina, and treating headaches.
3. Part of the Leaf
Can be used to treat stomach ache, canker sores, and increase appetite.
4. Flower and Fruit Section
Can be used for dysentery medicine.
Conditions for the Growth of Earth Stake
This plant is usually found in acidic and sandy soils that have good soil drainage. Generally, the land is located in the forest adjacent to the beach, both primary and secondary forest.
Pasak bumi can also be found in mountainous areas with bunds and sloping areas, especially those with an average temperature of 25 degrees Celsius and humidity of around 86%. During its development period, this pasak bumi plant requires a lot of sunlight, especially to assist its vegetative development and reproductive system. Pasak bumi will flower and bear fruit throughout the year, which is around June to July, while the fruit will ripen in September.
Earth Stake Rarity Factor
Unfortunately, currently many forests are being cleared by irresponsible humans, causing the existence of pegs to become scarce. Deforestation usually includes logging, transportation and road construction. In fact, the existence of the pasak bumi plant is considered very beneficial for humans, especially local residents because it can be used as herbal medicine.
Most local residents have not been able to cultivate pasak bumi because it grows very slowly, so they rely only on seeds in nature.
Utilization of Pasak Bumi as a Herbal Medicinal Material
According to research conducted by Supartini and Deddy Dwi Nur Cahyono with the title Yield of Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma Longifolia Jack) Roots, Stems and Leaves as Raw Materials for Herbal Medicine, states that the existence of pasak bumi can really be used as a raw material for making herbal medicines. From the content of useful compounds in the form of quassinoids , squalene derivatives , b- phenyl neolignans, beta-carboline alkaloids, triterpenoid tirucallane type and canthin-6-one alkaloids , with quassinoidshaving the highest number of course makes this plant included in the type of herbal plant. Especially at this time, the market demand for pegs as a raw material for medicine also encourages large-scale exploitation of this plant.
Based on this research resulted in a statement that this plant extract, from roots to flowers can be used as raw material for medicine. The bioactive ingredients contained in root and stem extracts are alkaloids, tannins, triterpenoids, carotenoids and coumarins. Then, the bioactive ingredients contained in the leaf extract are flavonoids, saponins, tannins, triterpenoids, carotenoids, and coumarins.
Then, the roots, stems and leaves have potential as antimalarials, antidiabetics, antidiarrheals, antifungals, antibacterials, antivirals, treatment of liver damage, menstrual disorders, antioxidants, and anti-inflammatories. However, it is necessary to optimize the pasak bumi plant as a raw material for medicine, to maximize processing and minimize waste from harvesting the pasak bumi plant.
Cultivation of Earth Stake Through Shoot Cuttings Technique
It should be noted that so far, the herbal medicine industry which relies on this plant as a raw material has only been obtained from nature without any cultivation efforts. This of course causes a decrease in the population of pasak bumi in nature. Not only that, even the population of this plant in Indonesia has been included in the category of rare plants because they are rarely found. So far, people have only relied on seeds in nature as a growth process, even though the growth process of this plant is very slow.
Therefore, there is research on the cultivation of the pasak bumi plant using the shoot cuttings technique, which is based on research entitled Propagation of the Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma Longifolia Jack) Plant through the Shoot Cuttings Technique by Arida Susilowati et al.
Based on this research, it is stated that the cultivation process using the shoot cuttings technique can grow and develop. Earth peg cuttings generally show roots at the age of 11 weeks. This can be seen when checking the roots. As an important organ, the presence of roots greatly determines the condition of the cuttings, therefore it is necessary to carry out microtechnical activities to determine the origin of the roots of the cuttings.
The process of forming the roots of the pasak bumi cuttings starts from meristem cells in the cambium or those that are between or outside the vascular tissue and actively divides after auxin from the shoots, rooting cofactor and carbohydrates moves to the base of the cuttings. These cells then gather to form root candidates, if there is a wound due to cutting, the cells form an aggregate cell mass called callus. The callus mass then divides again to form many collections of meristem cells called root primordia.
So, that’s an explanation of what pasak bumi is and a series of its benefits as herbal medicine. Is Sinaumed’s interested in cultivating this pasak bumi plant using shoot cuttings?