Definition & Types of Social Control (Preventive, Repressive, Coercive)

Social Control – In living side by side with other people in the midst of a community environment where the importance and need for social control in the community. If there is no social control then various things can happen such as robberies, fights, or even murder which can harm the environment and the people in it.

However, what is the true meaning of social control itself? Consider the following information regarding social control which is one of the efforts to prevent social deviations from occurring both individually and in society together.

The Definition of Social Control

The definition of social control based on the Ministry of Education and Culture’s website or the Ministry of Education and Culture is a mechanism used to direct community members in an environment to carry out the values ​​and social norms that apply in it.

According to sociologist Peter L. Berger, the definition of social control is all the ways that are used by society to regulate or regulate members in the community when they disobey. In addition, Joseph S. Roucek also defines social control as a collective term that refers to planned processes.

Where each individual is persuaded, encouraged or even forced to be able to adjust to the habits and values ​​of life that exist in a community group. Bruce J. Cohen who is a sociologist in his understanding of social control as various ways used to encourage every individual in a community to have behavior in line with the will of that community group.

Robert MZ Lawang defines social control as any means used by a community to return or help perpetrators of social deviance to return to a good path.

Social control according to Karel J. Veeger is a continuation of a socialization process that is carried out and has a relationship with various ways and methods used to encourage each individual to have thoughts and behaviors that are in harmony with the community group and the community environment in which they are located.

Based on the various definitions put forward by these experts, it can be concluded that social control is a process that is owned or used by a person or a group with the aim of influencing, inviting, or even forcing other members to instill within themselves the values ​​and norms that apply in society. that’s where they are.

The Purpose of Social Control

After understanding what social control is, there are several reasons why it exists in a society.

  • Reducing social deviant behavior that may be carried out by someone, with the inculcation of values ​​and norms, someone will understand not to do things that can harm themselves and others.
  • Creating peace and harmony in living side by side in the community, with awareness in each individual community, the risks of social deviation will be minimized thereby creating peace in an environment.
  • Make the offender able to realize the mistakes he made and want to improve himself and his behavior towards others.
  • Make the perpetrators of social deviance have the awareness to comply with the values ​​and norms that exist and apply in the community.
  • Making people understand and instill within themselves the values ​​and norms that exist both self-consciously and under coercion or encouragement from various factors.

 

Characteristics of Social Control

Social control that exists in a community environment itself has various characteristics that we can find, as follows.

  • The first feature of social control is having a method or technique used to control the people in that environment.
  • The second characteristic of social control is having the goal of achieving a balance between stability and the changes that are taking place in the community.
  • The third feature of social control is that it is usually carried out by a group of people against the individual concerned or other groups within a community.
  • The fourth feature of social control is that it has a two-way system and is often not realized by the parties concerned.

Types of Social Control

Based on the implementation time, the types of social control can be divided into two, namely preventive social control and representative social control which are explained as follows.

1. Preventive social control

The first type of social control based on the implementation time is preventive social control which is a control that occurs in the community environment prior to the existence or occurrence of deviant behavior.

This preventive social control is usually carried out by someone through socialization regarding existing norms, education of the surrounding community, community counseling, as well as providing advice and consequences so that social deviations do not occur.

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2. Repressive social control

The second type of social control based on the implementation time is repressive social control which is a control that occurs in a community environment after deviant behavior occurs in society.

This repressive social control itself is usually in the form of an effort that is carried out through giving consequences for those who violate it, commensurate punishment, advice and counseling so that they don’t repeat it again and are aware that this is a mistake. Based on the implementing officer, the types of social control can also be divided into two, namely, formal control and informal control.

3. Formal control

The first type of social control based on its implementing officers is formal control which is usually carried out by various official institutions that formally proclaim rules and values ​​and norms in an existing environment.

In general, the rules as well as the values ​​and norms that exist in the formal control environment are made in writing and there are already applicable standards in them. We can see formal control in several environments, such as the corporate environment, trade union associations, and existing judicial institutions.

4. Informal control

The second type of social control based on its implementing officers is informal control which is usually made in a community group that has an unofficial nature and rules or values ​​and norms that exist are not written.

We can generally see informal controls in everyday life, such as when we gather with family or with friends. This informal control is also generally unplanned and occurs spontaneously. For example, when we get together with friends and play a game.

When someone commits fraud, that person will be ridiculed. This is a form of informal control. Based on its nature, the types of social control can also be divided into two, namely, curative social control and participatory social control.

5. Curative social control

The first type of social control based on its nature is curative social control which is a form of social control carried out through various coaching and healing to perpetrators of social deviance to change the values ​​and norms that exist in them. We can see curative social control through the rehabilitation given to users of illegal drugs or drugs and alcoholic beverages.

6. Participatory social control

The second type of social control based on its nature is participatory social control which is a form of social control carried out by inviting or involving perpetrators of social deviance who have changed themselves to help improve the values ​​and norms of other perpetrators of social deviance.

 

Social Control Function

The following are some of the functions of the existence of social control in the midst of the community environment. Check out the following information.

The first function of social control is to reinforce existing societal beliefs about social values ​​and norms. With the cultivation and strengthening of this belief, it can directly affect the sustainability of the existing social order. The way that can be done to strengthen this belief is through various institutions such as schools, families, and through suggestions from the social environment.

The second function of social control is to provide rewards to each party that is able to comply with the values ​​and social norms that apply to society. What is meant by reward here is giving praise, respect, and giving gifts to members of the community. The purpose of giving these rewards is for everyone to continue to carry out the existing values ​​and norms and to set an example for other members to be even better.

The third function of social control is to develop inner shame. What is meant is when someone who is a perpetrator of social deviance is aware of his mistakes, he will be ashamed to admit his mistakes and his self-esteem will drop. In addition, the consequences for the perpetrators of social deviance such as reproaches or negative comments coming from the community will make them feel ashamed and deterred. That way, the person will have a sense of shame so that in the future they will not commit social deviance again.

The fourth function of social control is to develop fear within. When someone has a fear of doing an act or thing that can pose a risk of getting consequences, indirectly it will make him aware to avoid these things. With that fear, he will try to do good things and avoid things that are at risk of harming himself and others.

The fifth function of social control is to create a legal system in a society. In order for a common goal or agreement to be achieved in an environment, it is necessary to have values ​​and norms that apply to regulate every member of the community in it. With this legal system, which contains rules and consequences that can be accepted by any social deviant behavior, people will be aware not to do this if they do not want to be rewarded for their actions.

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Forms of Social Control

In people’s lives, there are various forms of social control that can be done or seen. The following are some forms of social control.

1. Gossip

The first form of social control is gossip or what is often referred to as rumor, which is a behavior of exchanging information carried out by someone without clear concrete evidence regarding an event or negative behavior.

2. Reprimand

The second form of social control is a warning that is generally carried out by a person or a group of perpetrators of social deviations that can disturb the harmony of the community environment. By doing this, a person provides direct and open criticism so that the perpetrators of these social deviations can immediately be aware of the mistakes they have made.

3. Sanctions

The third form of social control is sanctions or punishments given to people who commit social deviant behavior. As an example in everyday life, when we go to school and someone is reprimanded for cheating on a test, the score given is immediately zero. That way he becomes aware of being afraid and not doing that again. This form of sanction itself also has two benefits, namely, helping a person to be aware of the socially deviant behavior he has committed, and being a warning or reminder for other members of society not to make the same mistake.

4. Education

The fourth form of social control is education, where the higher the education a person has, the better understanding of existing values ​​and norms, and being able to practice them in real situations and help bring change to the community environment.

5. Religion

The fifth form of social control is religion, in which religion teaches everyone to maintain good relations with one another, with other creatures, and also with those in power. In religious teachings, there are also various prohibitions and orders to stay away from negative things that can become social deviations, because one day they will be subject to sanctions.

Means of Social Control

Here are some ways that can be done to exercise social control in a community environment.

1. Persuasive Social Control

The first method used to exercise social control is to use persuasion. Where by using this method, there is no violence against the perpetrators of social deviance but the methods used are advising, giving appeals and guiding so as not to commit deviant behavior in the future. Persuasive methods are usually carried out in the community through verbal or symbolic forms in the form of banners, posters or public service advertisements distributed to members of the public.

2. Coercive Social Control

The second way used to exercise social control is to use coercive means. Where by using this method, there is coercion or violence against the perpetrators of social deviations both physically and psychologically. This is often done by the authorities when they have no other way to bring the perpetrators to their senses.

However, using this method often results in consequences such as negative reactions from other parties. One example that we can see is the expulsion and control of street vendors or street vendors selling on main roads which often make the streets narrow and cause traffic jams. Because of this, the patrolling police often warned them to move, but they were ignored until they finally used this coercive method.

3. Socialization

The third method used to exercise social control is to use socialization. Where by using this method, community members are taught to create a habit and instill in themselves the values ​​and norms that apply in a community environment. This method is carried out through outreach to the surrounding community, by introducing existing norms and values ​​and their application to attitudes and behavior in everyday life in society.

4. Social Emphasis

The fourth way used to exercise social control is through social suppression. Where by using this method, it is expected to be able to control the behavior of every member of the environment in it. By doing this, it is hoped that a community environment can instill in the values ​​and norms that exist in each individual so that they can coexist well.

5. Preventive social control

namely prevention before deviations from the norms and values ​​of society occur. For example, parents who forbid their children from hanging out with friends who like to gamble. This is so that his son does not become a gambler later.

6. Repressive social control

namely efforts to restore the situation after deviations in the values ​​and norms of society. For example, someone who breaks a promise is reported to court, so the judge imposes a penalty by paying debts and fines.