Definition of Exclusivism – Exclusivism in the characteristics of social groups actually has many meanings, but in several definitions there are similarities in interpreting the word exclusivism. This similarity is the attitude of individuals and groups isolating themselves from other parties.
Meanwhile, depictions of exclusivism on the other hand are very easy to find in everyday life. An example is the existence of a terrorist network that tends to think radicalism by participating in community activities in general.
It has been acknowledged that some forms of social groups have an ideology of exclusivity, so that it is very difficult for other members to become part of that group, due to their exclusive attitude. In fact, in many things and places, some groups often oppress other groups, causing aggressive and discriminatory attitudes to emerge.
Humans as social beings tend to live in colonies, groups by forming certain groups. Actually. The purpose of group formation is carried out by having good goals, namely as a forum for realizing group goals and as a forum for carrying out types of social interaction that help each other with each other.
The notion of exclusivism in its history has left a bad or dark historical track record, which is none other than wars and conflicts that are triggered by something (not standing alone). These conflicts are always supported by the existence of certain religious views, and the resulting consequences are religious understandings that do not have nuances of enlightenment and liberation, but instead have conflict and violence motives.
It is undeniable that within the notion of exclusivism there has been or has formed a religious understanding which is unable to then develop a culture of dialogue and tolerance. Let alone in the context of inter-religious, even intra-religious contests, this exclusivism has become a stumbling block in itself. All groups, both fundamentalists and liberalists alike, are trapped in their own truth claims, because this notion of exclusivism has created new anxiety and anxiety in the context of forming a peaceful and tolerant religious life.
Definition of Exclusivism
Exclusivism is an ideology that has a tendency or a desire to alienate itself from society. Visible signs of exclusivism can be seen directly by people who have an understanding of exclusivism, namely prioritizing personal interests and having a tendency to withdraw or separate themselves from specific or general norms agreed upon within the group. Therefore, exclusivism is a form of individual social relations that closes itself from the outside world or excludes certain groups or groups.
1. General Understanding
Exclusivism is an understanding that emphasizes the tendency to separate oneself from the surrounding environment. In other words, there is a desire to withdraw from all existing forms of interaction such as individualism. They will tend to do everything on their own, without asking for help from others.
In addition, people who hold this understanding often prioritize personal interests rather than group interests. That’s because, according to them personal interests are absolute interests that must be prioritized. In fact, not infrequently, they think that they can survive without the help of other humans.
He prefers to exclude himself. Most people who adhere to this view, will look for other people who also have the same principles as them. This, of course, is done to make it easier and support them to do what they already believe in.
2. Understanding According to Experts
To add to our insights about this notion of exclusivism. Here are some opinions of experts and trusted sources regarding the meaning of exclusivism.
- According to El Rais (2012), this exclusivism is a series of understandings that tend to separate themselves from society.
- According to Raimundo Pannikar, this exclusivism is not an instant understanding, because this understanding requires rationality and also the continuity of the existence of religious doctrines.
- According to Zamakhsari, exclusivism is a psychosocial condition that tends to choose, accept people who it deems appropriate and according to its wishes, both individuals and groups. Furthermore, he stated that exclusivism is an attitude that feels the most righteous of the others.
- According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), exclusivism is a tendency to separate oneself from society.
The characteristics or characteristics that adhere to this exclusivism are:
- Prioritizing personal or group interests.
- Tend to separate themselves with a special attitude that is agreed upon or approved within a class or group.
Factors Causing the Development of Exclusivism
The act of withdrawing from existing social interaction is not possible without the things behind it. The following are the factors that cause the rise of the notion of exclusivism.
- The emergence of social inequality is so sharp between layers of society.
- There is social jealousy between people.
- The assumption arises that the existing norms are not in accordance with one’s personality.
- There are differences in status and strata in the social environment.
- There is an assumption that what is believed is the most correct understanding.
- Pressure from the people around.
- There is a past trauma associated with the interaction between people.
- Technological developments that facilitate all forms of activity carried out by humans.
Characteristics of Exclusivism
The characteristics that describe the meaning of the notion of exclusivism make it easier for us to classify various social problems that are related to this exclusivism. These are the characteristics of exclusivism.
- There is a tendency to prioritize personal interests over group interests.
- Tends to avoid activities that connect many people.
- More apathetic towards the circumstances and conditions that occur around him.
- Withdraw slowly from the social circle.
- Respect their opinions and beliefs more.
Forms of Exclusivism
The following are types of exclusivism quoted from the book Introduction to Sociology by Trisni Andayani, Ayu Febryani, and Dedi Andriansyah (2020).
1. Religious Sector
It is a fanatical, exclusive, and discriminatory attitude towards certain religious groups, groups that despise other religious groups. Several views that underlie the attitude of exclusivism are the fault of several individuals or groups who are then judged with a low view of the group. There is an assumption that associating is only permissible with people of the same faith. This becomes a gap for humans who want to interact with other humans.
This act of exclusivism which is closely related to the field of religion is often caused by the emergence of boundaries. The boundaries that are made are of course related to whether or not an individual is allowed to associate with other individuals. Exclusivism in the field of religion certainly emphasizes intolerance.
In everyday life, an individual who has a different faith or belief is prohibited from making friends. The emergence of this separation causes a religion to tend to exclude itself from the differences that exist.
In the Christian context, it assumes that only those who hear the Gospel proclaimed and explicitly confess Christ are saved ( only those who hear the Gospel proclaimed and explicitly confess Christ are saved ). In essence, exculivism, as described by George Lindbeck, establishes solus Christus , salvation only through Christ, and also fides ex auditu , faith through hearing.
The theological argument for this exclusivism claim is supported by the text of the Bible: “ I am the way, the truth and the life. No one reaches the Father except through Me (John 14:6). “ And salvation is found in no one but in Him, for there is no other name under heaven given to men by which we can be saved ” (Acts 4:12).
This Christian exclusivism view is also supported by the understanding of the pre-Vatican II Roman Catholic Church which stated extra ecclesiam nulla salus (outside the Church there is no salvation). In addition to theological arguments, D’Costa presents phenomenological arguments. This exclusivism group in fact recognizes the differences between existing religions, but this recognition without having to acknowledge the truth claims of these religions.
More than that, the effort and dialogue of this exclusive group with other groups is in order to make the person or group repent. They want other people to become followers of Christianity, as the only religion.
In the context of the Islamic world, this exclusivism view also lives and grows strongly. The view that only one perspective or one way of interpretation is correct. And of course, the correct view is, as he claims, his own, while the other views are wrong and misguided.
The scriptural basis of this group is their understanding of the verses of the Koran, such as QS Al ‘Imrân/3:85 which reads:
“Whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, then it will never be accepted (that religion) from him, and he will be among the losers in the hereafter. “
Likewise the statement in QS Âl ‘Imrân/3:19
Indeed, the religion (which is acceptable) in the sight of Allah is only Islam. there is no dispute among those who have been given the Book except after knowledge has come to them, out of envy (which exists) among them. Whoever disbelieves in the verses of Allah, indeed Allah is very quick to reckon .
These verses of the Qur’an are understood by the exclusivism group as a normative argument that only the Islamic religion is the most correct and pleasing to God, while other religions are wrong and misguided. In addition to this scriptural basis, Islamic theology also often assumes that the arrival of Islam was to supersede (perfect) or even abolish ( naskh ) the previous religions.
In addition to the theological/normative arguments above, Sachedina presents phenomenological/empirical arguments. According to him,
this exclusivism claim is considered as an important instrument for the self-identification of a group to differentiate it from other groups. This claim also functions as a tool of legitimacy and integration for others in the group, and as an effective basis for aggression and resistance against other groups.
This is what embodies the concept of jihad against certain groups, as well as the formation of dâr al-Islam (Islamic areas, or areas controlled by Muslim groups) and dâr al-harb (war areas, or areas that must be subdued).
2. Cultural Sector
A group of people who live choose a remote place to separate themselves from the community, because if they later mingle with the general public they will be influenced by a culture that is outside themselves. This fear made him choose to separate himself from society in general so that his cultural elements would not be contaminated with other influences.
They choose to separate themselves from trusting others. They believe that the culture in their group is the best and the best, so they don’t need anything to change. What is most striking and obvious is that in terms of the cultural characteristics of certain groups or ethnicities, it is not permissible for people within that cultural group to marry outside their group. This is also an effort to maintain the cultural purity of the group.
Exclusivism in this cultural context often occurs in remote areas that are far from modern. These areas tend to maintain the culture and customs that have existed since ancient times. To maintain this culture, they prefer to close themselves off from various existing developments and modernization. They do not want all their original culture to fade due to globalization and other developments.
Examples of Exclusivism
Examples of the manifestation of exclusivism that have existed include:
1. German Society
In Germany there used to be a leader who was known for his dictatorial leadership style, this character was named Hitler. Hitler really hated the Jewish people, his hatred of the Jews led him to suppress the behavior of the Jews.
In another context it is stated that Hitler’s behavior was to get recognition and appreciation that he was the best among others, in order to get awards and power to become the number one leader of that era. This is an example of group exclusivism.
Let’s flash back to the past, do we still remember our memories of the bomb tragedy on the island of Bali which was carried out by a terrorist group. Amrozi and his friends launched their action on the island of the gods, Bali, under the pretext of fighting for the pure religion against disbelief.
This incident is a result of the notion of exclusivism, thus fostering fanaticism towards one’s own group and discrimination against other groups. The result is a feeling within him that his group is the biggest and most correct among the other existing groups.
The manifestation of exclusivism in the regional environment can be seen from several tribes and races that live side by side but greet and admonish one another. The reason is because they see that it will make them lower. Behavior like this of course will make someone think exclusivism.
4. Everyday Life
Closer to our daily life, is there a society that understands exclusivism that we can even find in our social environment. Of course there are, maybe we have even seen friends who only want to hang out with friends who are from the same social class, rich people only want to be friends with rich people, officials’ children who only hang out with officials’ children, or people who hang out with officials’ children.
People who only want to be considered that they are cool, have a higher education, have a high social status. This is the closest example to us people who have an understanding of exclusivism
Most of us hear the word exclusive and immediately have the image that exclusivism is a group with a class or type of high social status. It turns out that in our social life there are many examples and up to the individual level they are also infected with this attitude of exclusivism.
Impact of Exclusivism
The attitude of exclusivism clearly has two things in its development and the resulting impact. Exclusivism has both positive and negative impacts. The explanation;
1. Positive Impact
- The emergence of conditions in society whereby being closed to the rest of the world can still maintain the culture that is in the group.
- There is an assumption in individuals that their group is the best group and must be maintained.
- Has the ability to distinguish himself from others around him.
- There is a firm belief in the group, so it is not easily carried away by other groups.
2. Negative Impact
- There is an assumption in the individual that the interests of the group are the most important interests above other interests.
- Individuals tend to be closed to the outside world and difficult to be influenced by other cultures.
- Cultural development within the group tends to be static and stagnant, making it difficult to make gradual and progressive changes.
- It is prone to internal conflicts within the group, so that it can divide the unity within the group.
How to Overcome Exclusivism
Here’s how to overcome the development of exclusivism.
- Develop a pattern of thinking as a multicultural society.
- Open minds and views on all developments and changes that occur ( open minded ).
- Respect each other’s differences and also diversity.
- Do not be prejudiced against other people’s opinions, before getting an explanation.
- Build lots of relationships and interactions.
- Filter all forms of radical understanding that enters Indonesia to be adjusted first to Pancasila.
That is the description of the article that we can give you regarding the definition of exclusivism according to experts, types, impacts, and examples in society. Hopefully it can provide references for all people.