Definition of Administration: Purpose, Characteristics, Functions, and Types

Understanding Administration in a broad understanding can be interpreted as a cooperative activity. However, if administration is associated with various fields and other things, such as organization, management, policies, human relations, and so on. Then administration can have another meaning.

Administration itself is basically a science that developed in the early 19th century. With the development of the times and science, administration has also developed so that in the end it has been widely applied to meet the needs of various countries in the world.

In its use, administration is needed by a company or institution to be able to stand up and continue to develop by making good resources and management.

In a company, every employee or staff has rights and obligations that are directly related to his work. Administration is one part of managing the company so that it can be optimal.

Today, the notion of administration is one of the terms that is very commonly used in the world of work. Administration is a term that is synonymous with various jobs such as data collection, record keeping, correspondence, and much more.

These reasons make administration indispensable for companies, institutions, and agencies. Someone who has responsibility for managing administration is usually called an administrator or administrative staff.

In its application in everyday life, administration has provided many benefits, such as optimizing work systems and even being very effective in improving the quality of education.

The existence of good administration can be one way to create a good and easier work system, both informal and non-formal.

In addition, administration also makes it easier for work related to data management. Administration has been proven to be able to create an appropriate and easier management system.

This article will discuss the ins and outs of administration. Starting from the definition of administration, administrative objectives, administrative characteristics, administrative functions, types of administration, to the workings of administration. Let’s see more!



A. Definition of Administration

Administration itself was first used in Greek, namely administrare or an activity to provide service and assistance. In her work entitled Introduction to Administrative Science, published in 2020, Alemina Henuk-Kacaribu said that administration can be interpreted as an activity, starting from setting up to managing various things to realize common goals.

In general, the notion of administration can be carried out if it is used by more than one person, this is because administration connects work between two or more people so that they can work together.

Understanding Administration is basically an activity or form of business that has a strong relationship with many policy arrangements, one of which is to realize the targets of a company or organization.

Therefore, administration has a vital role in various aspects and activities for a company or organization to survive and continue to grow.

The definition of administration can be understood based on a narrow sense and a broad sense:

1. Definition of administration in a narrow sense

According to Hendi Haryadi in his book entitled Office Administration for Managers & Staff (2009), the notion of administration is defined as an activity of systematically compiling and recording data and information.

The purpose of administration in its own narrow sense is to provide information while facilitating these activities to retrieve information. Understanding Administration in a narrow sense can also be said as a form of administration of a company or organization.

2. Understanding administration in a broad sense

In a broad sense, the notion of administration can be understood as a collaborative activity carried out by a group of people. The cooperation activities are determined based on the division of labor which has been adjusted in a structured manner to achieve common goals effectively and efficiently.

B. Administrative Purposes

After knowing about the meaning of administration, in this section we will discuss in depth what the purpose of administration is. As previously explained that administration is needed by every organization or company.

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Administration is very helpful for a company or organization in planning to developing activities in an effort to achieve certain goals.

The following are four administrative objectives that need attention, including:

1. Develop a Business Program

The first administrative goal is to compile a business program. In compiling this business program, every company or organization always needs information or data as a reference.

The way to get information or data is usually obtained through an administrative activity. Administrative activities proved easier to obtain various information or data needed. Therefore, one reason an administrative process must be applied systematically.

2. Evaluation of Organizational Activities

The second administrative objective is the evaluation of organizational activities. After compiling a business program, the administrative system will greatly facilitate an organization or company to evaluate organizational activities.

One form of evaluation of activities carried out by companies or organizations is usually based on the results of information and data that have been found. Of course this evaluation makes the organization or company better understand the various potentials and constraints during implementing the program.

3. Monitor administrative activities

The third administrative objective is to monitor administrative activities. Monitoring is important because the administrative system is an activity related to many things.

Therefore, the implementation of administrative activities must be carried out systematically and regularly. An administrative system that is successfully implemented properly will ultimately make a company or organization more organized. For example, monitoring an activity related to what, how, where, when and why questions.

4. Ensuring Security for Business Activities

The fourth administrative goal is to ensure security for business activities. In the administration system, security is one of the things needed by every company or organization when carrying out business activities.

Therefore, companies or organizations need to have good administration so that monitoring of all activities can be carried out optimally. Not only that, the administration process will make every activity and transaction can be recorded in detail and clearly.

C. Features of Administration

After learning about the purpose and meaning of administration, the following are the characteristics of administration based on the Fundamentals of Entrepreneurship (2019) by Choms Gary Ganda Tua Sibarani, et al. Administrative features are:

1. Consists of a group of people

First, administration cannot be carried out by one person alone. Administration requires a group of people to work together. Therefore, the most important characteristic of administration is that it consists of a group of people who have the same goal.

2. Establish cooperation

Second, we know for ourselves that administration needs to be carried out by working together in realizing a common goal. Therefore, cooperation is a must-have feature so that the administrative system can run optimally.

3. Have a goal to achieve

Third, one of the reasons for administration is an effort to achieve a certain goal. Therefore, administration is needed to make a group of people work together and try to go in the same direction, namely a common goal.

4. There is a process of business activity

Fourth, an administrative system needs to have certain business activity processes. The process of business activities is an important characteristic of an administration. This process can be understood as a series of business activities to create cooperation to achieve common goals.

5. Guidance, leadership, and supervision activities

Fifth, the last administrative feature is the activity of guidance, leadership, and supervision. These three things need to be implemented to make a company or organization achieve its goals.

D. Administrative Functions

As one of the most important parts of a company or organization, administration has several important functions that must be carried out, including:

1. Planning or Planning

The first administrative function is planning. Planning is one activity that really requires an administrative activity. Administrative activities intended are such as collecting data, processing data, compiling plans, and so on.

2. Organizing or preparation

The second administrative function is preparation. Administration is needed by a company or organization in order to be able to make arrangements to achieve goals.

The arrangement that needs to be done is like, efforts to build every communication and relationship between members or employees to be easy to understand.

3. Coordinating or Coordinating

The third administrative function is coordinating. In an effort to achieve a certain goal, a company or organization needs to make arrangements for each of its parts.

Therefore, coordinating is carried out so that the company’s activities can run smoothly and well, without clashes, vacancies and even chaos. The existence of good coordination is a sign that a company or organization is on the right track to achieve its goals.

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4. Reporting or reports

The fourth administrative function is reports. Reporting or reports are administrative activities to convey developments, movements to the results of activities or programs carried out.

The report itself includes all elements of the company, both employees and members, to their superiors in writing. This report will be one of the assessments carried out on employee performance based on their position and duties.

5. Budgeting or Budgeting

The fifth administrative function is budgeting. Budgeting itself is one of the important things and must exist in a company or organization. Making a budget is needed to always improve performance.

Not only that, the budget can also be used by companies or organizations to achieve their goals during the development period. Some collaborations that require a budget, such as advertising and so on.

6. Staffing or Position Placement

The sixth administrative function is position placement. Staffing or placement of positions is a function related to the quality of human resources in a company. Staffing itself usually includes the recruitment of experts, development and equipment requirements.

7. Directing or Guidance

The last administrative function is directing or guidance. Guidance itself is an interaction activity carried out by members of an organization or company in the form of guidance, orders and suggestions.

Guidance is needed so that the performance of members and employees can run well so as to achieve the goals set.

E. Types of Administration

After knowing various things about administration, here are the types of administration that are commonly needed.



1. Office administration

Office administration is a type of administration that has activities such as financial planning, record keeping, distribution of goods, and personnel.

2. State administration

State administration is one type of administration that has activities related to the public interest or the general public, for example, such as public policy, ethics, and so on.

3. Financial administration

Financial administration is one type of administration whose activities are related to finance. The main task of this type of administration is to make financial reports.

4. Educational administration

Educational administration, namely administration whose activities have activities in regulating the education sector. Examples of activities of this type of administration are planning, directing, and supervision of education.

5. Commercial administration

Commercial administration is a type of administration whose activities consist of planning and supervising all matters of a commercial nature. This administration is usually directly coordinated by a manager in a company or business.

Discussing commerce, of course one of the goals of this type of administration is to gain economic profit.

F. How Administration Works

After knowing about the meaning of administration and various things related to it, in this section we will focus on discussing how the administration itself works.

As previously explained, the meaning of administration and its functions within a company or organization is carried out by someone who is called an administrator or administrative staff.

What needs to be known is that administrative staff is a unit capable of providing support for various operational activities of a company or organization.

Meanwhile, administrative staff has the main duties, namely activities that are closely related to correspondence, storing and organizing documents, data entry and assisting units that need data. Administrative staff will later turn their duties into a report that will be submitted to management.

The workings of the administration itself are closely related to the various tasks of administrative staff in an organization or company. In general, the workings of the administration of seven, including namely:

1. Coordinate with secretaries or administrative staff from other divisions when there are joint meetings or other activities.

2. Collecting and compiling documents.

3. Prepare accommodation and tickets for work visit activities outside the office.

4. Ensuring supplies of office stationery.

5. Create and prepare agenda arrangements for meetings or other office events.

6. Manage, open and distribute incoming correspondence to the company either in the form of letters or e-mails.

7. Prepare bills, notes, reports, letters and other documents using data processing applications, databases, worksheets or presentations.

Based on the explanation above, it can be understood that administration in a company or organization is a very important activity. If there is no administration, there is the potential for a company or organization to not have proper management or regulation of activities, thus hindering its development.

Therefore, the application of good administration can lead a company or organization to remain standing and continue to experience development until it can achieve its goals.

In this article, we know that the notion of administration is not only a matter of correspondence or keeping records. The definition of Administration includes many things, from planning, compiling, coordinating, making reports, compiling budgets to providing direction or guidance to every employee or member of the company.

Therefore, every company should have good administration. This is also related to the competence possessed by the administrative staff itself.

Proper management and administrative arrangements will ultimately make company goals easier to achieve. Not only that, organizations or companies will also be able to compete amidst the progress of the times and increasingly intense competition.

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