Mariana Trench – Talking about nature will never end, be it air, land, or even sea. The natural conditions of the seas in this world are very diverse, so that the sea conditions between one country and another are not always the same.
In addition, when talking about the sea, it is usually difficult to separate it from what is called a trough. One of the well-known trenches in the world is the Mariana Trench. So, where is the Mariana Trench actually located and what is inside the Mariana Trench?
The following is an explanation of the location of the Mariana Trench and other interesting facts. Let’s see Sinaumed’s.
Location of the Mariana Trench
The Mariana Trench is the largest trench located in the Pacific Ocean west of the Philippines. This trench has the deepest point on the surface of the earth, because it has the deepest abyss of the ocean floor.
This trough is in the Pacific Ocean which covers more than 2/3 of the earth. At the bottom of the ocean there is the earth’s crust which forms mountains, canyons or land. Ocean trenches are formed due to the meeting between plates and trenches are narrow depressions that are located very deep on the ocean floor.
Things like that can happen because when on the seabed there will be quite a lot of mountains, so that a meeting between two plates can occur. With the meeting between the two plates that will produce a very deep chasm.
The depth of the Mariana Trench
It feels incomplete without discussing the depth of the Mariana Trench. The depth of this trough is estimated at around 11,034 meters when compared to Mount Everest as high as 8,848 meters above sea level. In addition, the deepest part of this trench is about 2147 meters deeper than the height of Everest.
The Mariana Trench is at the deepest point on the earth’s surface. The interior emits molten sulfur, carbon dioxide, mountains and marine animals that can adapt.
Length of the Mariana Trench
The Mariana Trench which is in the East Pacific from the Philippines has a length of about 2,250 km, an average width of 69 km and the distance from the ocean to the deepest trench reaches 11 km.
Inhabitants of the Mariana Trench
The water pressure at the bottom of the Mariana Trench is 1,000 times greater than the normal atmospheric pressure at the earth’s surface. However, in this trough, it turns out that there are still findings of several animals. Here is a list of animals that live in it.
1. Angler Fish
The Angler fish has a bright end on its head which functions to catch prey. Angler Fish or angler fish can be found in very dark troughs. This fish has a shape that is almost similar to the glowing fish in the film Finding Nemo.
This angler fish has a characteristic, namely a bright light that burns in front of its head. In addition, the mouth is filled with sharp teeth, and has a tooth length of about 20 cm for females. Meanwhile, the body size of the male angler fish is larger than the female.
2. Dumbo Octopus
Known as the dumbo octopus or grimpoteuthis . This octopus was first discovered around 1883. However, further specimens were not seen until they were rediscovered in the 1990s. This type of octopus has a smaller size of about 20 to 30 cm. Its body is shaped like a jelly which is useful for octopuses living in high pressure environments.
The Dumbo Octopus looks like an animal that has ears. The part of the body that is similar to the earlobe is the fin of the octopus. The Dumbo octopus is about 30 cm long and lives at a depth of 3,962 meters in the Mariana Trench.
3. Frilled Shark
The frilled shark is an ancient animal thought to have lived more than 80 years ago. This shark has brown, gray and muscular body characteristics. This shark has jaws and teeth.
The number of teeth in the upper jaw is around 19 to 28 pieces. Meanwhile, the number of teeth in the lower jaw is around 21 to 29 pieces. The frilled shark lives on the ocean floor of this trough which is well known for its depths.
4. Goblin sharks
Goblin sharks are a rare species of shark on earth. The appearance of this shark is quite scary when compared to the appearance of the frilled shark. The goblin shark has a pointed snout and long jaws.
There are thin and sharp teeth in the snout. This fish has a pink skin color. Usually these fish are rarely seen by humans because they live about 100 meters underwater.
5. Telescope Octopus
The next rare animal in this trough is the octopus which has a transparent or colorless color. This octopus has 8 transparent arms that are the same size and their eyes are shaped like tubes.
This type of octopus was discovered by Dr. William Evans Hoyle in 1885. This octopus is categorized as a rare species because it is only known by some scientists and the public.
This animal lives at a depth of 1981 meters in this trough. They have a way of swimming vertically, i.e. from top to bottom and vice versa and this movement allows transparent-bodied octopuses to survive from predators.
6. Fish with Transparent Heads
Transparent-headed fish called Macropinna Microstoma . It is called transparent because the fish head emits light in the darkness of the Mariana Trench.
7. Zombie worm or Osedax
Zombie worms are worms that live in this trough. They would eat the bones and carcasses of whales or animals that died in the dark sea. In addition, they also use a special network of roots to drill into the bones of whales or marine animals that have died in the sea.
8. Deep Sea Dragonfish
Apart from Angler Fish, there are Deep Sea Dragon fish or Dragon fish without Scales. This fish includes predators that live in deep waters. This fish has its own light to lure its prey.
9. Seadevil Fish
The first animal detected to enter this trough is a scary fish. One of them is a seadevil fish that has a kind of lighting near its head to attract prey to approach it. In addition, the light on his head is an advantage that allows him to live comfortably on the pitch-dark seabed.
10. Megalodon shark
The next animal in this trough is the megalodon shark. This animal is considered to exist and live in the deepest sea in the world. Apart from that, there is a myth that is often discussed by observers out there that in the Mariana Trench, megalodon sharks are still alive and hiding quietly.
Even though it has been declared extinct, it is still widely believed that this ancient shark, which can reach tens of meters in length and weighs up to hundreds of tons, still exists. Therefore, many researchers are challenged to prove that ancient sharks still live in the waters around the Mariana Trench. Even so, this research is certainly not arbitrary to do because it is dangerous and carries a risk of death for the researchers.
Considering that not many deep seas have been explored by humans and even though there is no real evidence or documentation of the existence of megalodon sharks, the possibility of this is still very wide open.
Therefore, we can only wait until humans discover super-sophisticated technology that allows us to dive to the bottom of the sea with simple tools or equipment. When you get to that point, don’t be surprised if you actually find sharks or maybe other sharks that have never been recorded in history.
Features of the Mariana Trench
On the ocean floor, there are many locations that form basins. However, each particular object certainly has certain characteristics. This also applies to the Mariana Trench. The following are the characteristics of the Mariana Trench.
- Has a very steep and dangerous depth
- Shaped like a ravine and indented
- The deeper it goes, there will only be darkness
- It is located in the open ocean
- The walls are sharp and steep
- Concave shape
List of Deepest Ocean Trenches
1. Philippine Trench
One of the deepest trenches in the world is the Philippine Trench. As the name implies, this trough is in a country on the continent of Asia, the Philippines. The Philippine Trench is the third deepest ravine with a depth of 10,540 meters. The other name is the Mindanao Trench.
Besides being very deep, this trough also has a width of up to 1,320 meters. It’s clear that this trough is very dangerous. Not to mention, with sharp and steep walls.
2. Kermadec Trough
The Kermadec Trench is the fifth deepest trench because it has a depth of up to 10,045 meters. This ocean trench is in the Pacific Ocean area. More precisely in eastern Australia. Its depth of thousands of meters makes it very dark.
3. The Puerto Rican Trench
This trough is located in Puerto Rico with a depth of up to 8,605 meters. Apparently, this trough is located in the Atlantic Ocean, on the border between the Caribbean Sea. This trough will be more dangerous if there is a big earthquake that occurs in the area.
4. Japanese trough
This trough has a depth of up to 9,000 meters. From its depth, of course you can imagine how terrible it would be if this trough cracked due to an earthquake. This trough is in the Land of Cherry Blossoms or Japan and the Pacific Ocean.
5. Kuril-Kamchatka Trough
The Kuril-Kamchatka Trench is in a region of the Pacific ocean called Kuril Kamchatka. This trough has an area of up to 10,500 meters. In addition, this trough is the fourth order of the trough when sorted from its depth.
Mariana Trench Facts
The Mariana Trench has interesting facts, including the following:
1. Higher than Everest
Based on available information, the Mariana Trench is often one of the objects or research materials. Scientists compare how deep the Mariana Trench is to Mount Everest, this is one of the appropriate or correct comparisons.
Everest itself is the highest mountain in the world, while the Mariana Trench is the deepest trench in the world. However, to measure the Mariana Trench, the height of the Everest peak is used which is made upside down to the seabed.
If we return to the resulting calculations, the Mariana Trench is still deeper than the peak of Everest. In addition, researchers also believe that this opportunity is endless or cannot be found.
2. Very High Pressure
The pressure on the Mariana Trench is extraordinary and terrifying. Has Sinaumed’s ever swam or dived in a swimming pool or open sea? The deeper the water, the greater the body’s pressure to feel, so that Sinaumed’s had to expend extra energy to dive. In addition, it will be more difficult to see and breathe if there is no light or mask.
In addition, the eardrum will be pressed, especially the balance area. This turns out to be related to the depth of the Mariana Trench which is said to be with a depth of up to 11 KM the highest pressure can reach 8 tons per square inch.
Of course, if Sinaumed’s imagines what this pressure is like, then it can be illustrated as 50 units of the world’s largest jet planes and 1,600 African elephants piled on top of our bodies. Such is the pressure that can be felt by humans if we dive to the bottom or into the Mariana Trench without the help of tools or protection.
3. Mysterious Zone
A mysterious zone that lacks exploration. The depth of the ocean is divided into four zones. Based on his research, the littoral and bathyal zones represent sea level to a depth of 3 km and below. As for the abyssal zone, it is said to reach a depth of 6 km and the last is a reliable zone to mention any depth level that exceeds 6 km below sea level.
In the Mariana Trench itself, if we dive without using assistance, then anyone who swims to reach the abyss zone is dead or dead. Surprisingly, even though it is considered a dead zone, there are quite a number of animals and plants that can live in scary forms.
4. 180 Million Years
According to research, the Mariana Trench has been formed 180 million years ago, due to a collision between two plates originating from the Pacific tectonic plate and also the Philippine plate. The impact of this collision caused a layer that fell into the earth’s mantle layer.
Therefore, the Mariana Trench has been around for a long time. However, as technology develops, the Mariana Trench becomes an object of research. Since long ago, the Mariana Trench was only considered a deadly area that sailors and divers were not allowed to pass.
The recently detected depth of the Mariana Trench itself is 11 km. However, there are still many people who feel that there are still areas beyond the reach of humans or any technology in the Mariana Trench.
Likewise with the temperature that is felt when we dive or swim in this trough where sunlight cannot penetrate. Because of this, the temperature in the Mariana Trench is very low, even above freezing. In addition, the absence of sunlight also raises the unique animals in this trough.
5. First Inventor
The Mariana Trench was first discovered by an institution with the name HMS challenger. This British naval ship in 1875 deliberately discovered the Mariana Trench and examined it. Then, they named the deepest point of the trough “Challenger’s Depth”. No kidding, this trough was indeed informed as one of the first deadly areas discovered by this agency.
Those are a series of explanations regarding the Mariana Trench which made history the deepest trench or sea in the world. Amazing isn’t it? After knowing the facts above, does Sinaumed’s have the desire to research the Mariana Trench?