The longest bridge in the world – Thanks to increasingly sophisticated technological developments, the infrastructure development process is getting easier and faster, including the construction of bridges. Based on these facts, it is not surprising that most of the infrastructure such as the world’s longest bridge is located in highly technologically advanced countries such as China and the United States.
Geographical conditions are one of the biggest challenges for the smooth construction of bridges . However, with good structural design and technological advances, the construction of super-long bridges, even hundreds of kilometers, can still be achieved.
Bridges are structures designed to cross rivers, ravines, obstacles, roads and railroads. This bridge construction is used by pedestrians or vehicles to avoid obstacles. During construction, bridges must also be considered for maximum vehicle load as they are an important element of the road section.
Times change and so does technology. Of course, bridge construction is no longer constrained by geographical conditions because bridges can be built anywhere. Even bridges can be built in a very long time up to hundreds of kilometers.
In this article we will describe some of the longest bridges in the world. These bridges are found in several countries and their uses also vary widely. Want to know more about the longest bridge in the world? Come on, Sinaumed’s friends , see the following review!
Definition of Bridge
A bridge is a structure deliberately designed to make it easier for people to cross a chasm or an obstacle such as a railroad, river or highway. Bridges are part of land-based infrastructure built as a means for pedestrians, vehicles or trains to cross an obstacle in order to expedite traffic flow.
The role of bridges is very important in traffic distribution. So do not be surprised if the bridge is an important part of a road section, because the bridge determines the maximum load capacity of vehicles that cross the section.
The first bridge was built using a wooden walkway to cross the river. Many people also use two ropes or rattan ropes tied to rocks by the river to get past the obstacles. After that, the stone was still used but only as a frame.
Bridge gates are generally curved. This design was first implemented during the time of the Roman Empire, and even then there are still many bridges and aqueducts from that time that we know today.
The Romans of that time could distinguish the strengths of the different stones. The type of bridge built from the time of the Roman emperors was the brick and mortar bridge, because after that technology and science started to fade.
Around the 18th century, many reforms in the construction of wooden bridge structures were pioneered by Hans Ulrich, Johannes Grubenmann and several others. With the industrial revolution of the 19th century, technical progress in bridge construction developed through an iron frame system.
Unfortunately, iron does not have sufficient tensile strength to withstand so much weight. The idea of making a bridge with high tensile strength came from Gustave Eiffel which was then applied to the Eiffel Tower in Paris, France.
This method is most suitable for use on long bridges because it has the strength to support high loads. In addition, concrete also has a much cheaper maintenance cost than iron.
List of Longest Bridges in the World
Several countries in the world seem to be competing to build the longest bridge in the world. The success of bridge construction can be a parameter of a country’s progress in addition to its main function of facilitating human movement. Here are some lists of the longest bridges in the world.
1. Danyang – Kunshan Grand Bridge, Taiwan (165.8 KM)
Kunshan Grand Bridge was the longest bridge in the world at that time. This bridge has a length of about 165.8 km. This bridge has a height of about 31 meters. This bridge is very long, even exceeding the distance from Jakarta to Bandung, which is only about 150 km.
The Yangtze River Bridge connects Shanghai to the Nanjing Railway in Jiangsu Province, China. This bridge is also crossed by high-speed trains from Beijing to Shanghai. It would be nice if the train could cross a river this big with a very long bridge.
The construction of this bridge began in 2006 and was completed in 2010. The construction of this bridge took a long time due to its condition that it crosses the river and the bridge is also quite long, so the construction of this bridge took a long time. Even during the construction of this bridge, up to 10,000 workers were deployed so that this bridge could be made perfectly.
2. Changhua – Kaohsiung Viaduct, Taiwan (157.3 KM)
The second longest bridge in the world is the Changhua-Kaohsiung Viaduct which stretches 157.3 km from Changhua City to Zuoying, Taiwan. The bridge, which was completed in 2007, is the Taiwan High Speed Rail line that crosses a super-wide line. Interestingly, this bridge is specifically designed to be earthquake resistant so that the train can stop safely during the seismic phenomenon.
3. Cangde Grand Bridge, China (115.9 KM)
Like the Changhua-Kaohsiung Viaduct, the 115.9 km long Cangde Grand Bridge is a special bridge for the Beijing-Shanghai High Speed Railway in China.
The structure is made in such a way as to withstand earthquakes. This bridge crosses the Wei River and several other small rivers with 3092 piers which were completed in 2010.
4. Tianjin Great Bridge, China (113.7 KM)
Tianjin Great Bridge, also known as the Langfang-Qingxian Bridge. This bridge is a railway bridge that connects Lan Fang and Qingxian. This bridge is also part of the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway.
This bridge is used as the second longest bridge in the world and this record has been recorded by the Guinness World Records. The Tianjin Great Bridge is about 113.7 km long. In 2010, the bridge was completed, but it was not officially opened and opened to the public until 2011.
The design of this bridge with an overpass is made to prevent people from crossing the main road, iron roads and others. In addition, this type of design is used to shorten the construction period. Overpasses are like this so the route uses very little soil. As the railway line takes up 28.4 ha/km of track, the bridge only takes up 10.9 ha, which is only half that of a conventional train.
Then this bridge was also installed with boxes with a length of 32 meters, each of which weighs 860 tons. During the manufacturing process, these beams are produced at two work stations located along the bridge. The beams are then brought to the bridge installation site and then placed on the wharf by special cranes to transport them.
5. Weinan – Weihe Grand Bridge, China (79.7 KM)
The Weinan-Weihe Grand Bridge or also known as the Weinan Grand Weihe Bridge is a bridge located on the Zhengzhou – Xi’an high-speed rail line. This bridge is the third longest bridge in the world. This bridge has a length of about 79,732 km which spans various rivers such as the Wei River which is crossed twice, the Luofu River, the Ling River, the Xi River, the Shi Di River and other rivers as well as railroads and highways.
During construction, the bridge employed 10,000 workers, 2,300,000 cubic meters of concrete and 45,000 tons of steel. With the length of the bridge and the materials used being so critical, the bridge was completed in 2008. However, the bridge only opened on 6 February 2010.
This is certainly part of the plan of the Xulan Dedicated Line , which is a high-speed rail service that provides a route from Lanzhou to Xuzhou. Once completed, this bridge will be used as an alternative bridge for the Longhai Railway. In fact, this bridge will also serve a very dense Chinese population in the Zhengzhou and Xian regions which are the railroad lines. The city has a population of 100 million people.
6. Bang Na Expressway, Thailand (54 KM)
Not only China and the United States are competing to form the world’s longest bridge. It turns out that Thailand also made this infrastructure using the name Bang Na Expressway. This bridge is a 54 km long toll road that stretches over the National Highway 34.
The Bang Na Expressway was specifically designed by Jean M. Muller from the United States who acted as an engineering consultant in an Asian country as a foundation designer. While the engineer responsible for this project is the company Louis Berger Group.
The construction of the Bang Na Expressway bridge spent 1.8 million m3 of concrete which was completed in 2000. The Bang Na Expressway also held the title of being the longest bridge in the world until 2008 before the Danyang – Kunshan Grand Bridge construction project in China was completed.
7. Beijing Grand Bridge, China (48.1 KM)
This bridge is a fast train bridge Beijing – Shanghai High Speed Railway with a length of about 48.1 km. The Beijing Grand Bridge was completed in 2010 and stretches from Beijing South Railway Station to Daxing District, China.
8. Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, USA (38.4 KM)
As the name suggests, the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway consists of two parallel bridges spanning Lake Pontchartrain in the state of South Louisiana, United States. This bridge has a length of 38.4 km and is known as the world’s longest bridge over water. The northern end of the bridge passes through Mandeville, Louisiana, while the southern end passes through Metairie, Louisiana, which is located on the outskirts of New Orleans.
Another feature of this bridge is that it is the first bridge to be built using mass-produced construction techniques. Unlike the construction of other bridges that have been built on the spot. So far, the components of this bridge come from casting and are then transported by barge to the construction site. At that time, it was rarely done like that.
This bridge is also included in the longest bridge in the world. However, his title was threatened because of a new bridge in China that crosses the Jiaozhou Bay which is 3 kilometers longer than the Pontchartrain Causeway Bridge.
After learning about this incident, the United States protested to The Guinness World Records which had given the title of the longest bridge in the world to the bridge in China. Then the titles of the two bridges are distinguished. The Pontchartrain Causeway Bridge is given the title of the longest continuous bridge in the world, because it stretches straight to the end without interruption. Meanwhile, the Jiaozhou Bridge has a curved shape, therefore it has received the title of the longest collection of bridges in the world.
9. Line 1 Wuhan Metro, China (37.7 KM)
The next bridge is the Wuhan Metro Line 1 which is about 37.7 km long and is part of the Wuhan Metro Line. The bridge was completed in July 2004, making Wuhan, China the 5th city with a subway system after several other cities such as Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Guangzhou.
The Wuhan Metro is a rapid transit system with elevated and metro lines. This line serves all the people of Wuhan City, Hubei and its surroundings.
10. Manchac Swamp Bridge, United States (36.7 KM)
Manchac Swamp Bridge is the longest water bridge in the world after Pontchartrain Causeway Bridge. Also, this bridge is also known as 1-55 Manchac Swamp Crossing, which is located in Louisiana. This bridge has a length of about 36.71 km. This bridge was built in 1979 to facilitate traffic across the major river.
The construction of this bridge was carried out in a swamp pushing the bridge supports up to 76 meters into the swamp. The cost to build this bridge reached US $ 7 million per mile.
Apparently this bridge was also made to avoid the swamps under the crocodile nest. So this bridge is designed so that people who see it feel comfortable and safe from crocodiles in the swamp.
11. Hangzhou Bay Bridge, China (35.7 KM)
The Hangzhou Bay Bridge is one of the longest bridges in the world. This bridge has a length of about 35.7 km. This bridge was built at the mouth of the Hangzhou Bay on the east coast of China. This bridge connects the two cities of Jiaxing and Ningbo in Zhejiang province.
The bridge was completed on June 14, 2007, and then held the opening ceremony on June 26, 2007. However, the bridge was not immediately opened to the public. This bridge has been tested and evaluated for approximately one year. Then, on May 1, 2008, the bridge was allowed to open to the public.
The construction of this bridge has a positive value, namely shortening the journey from Ningbo to Shanghai, which was originally 400 km to 180 km, and the travel time has also been reduced from 4 now to 2 hours.
The construction of this bridge uses a cable-stayed bridge. In production choose this form because of the durability of the cable can withstand adverse conditions. In addition to being a very long bridge, the rivers crossed by this bridge have the greatest tidal strength. Even the location on this bridge is prone to earthquakes and hurricanes. Therefore, this form of construction was chosen because it follows the surrounding natural conditions.
In addition, this bridge uses steel piles. Its purpose is that it is strong enough to withstand corrosion caused by very high tides in the bay. The use of steel piles also makes construction easier when conditions are difficult to handle, such as when a big wave knocks down a bridge construction, the bridge will be stronger than using concrete piles.
12. Runyang Bridge, China (35.6 KM)
Runyang Bridge, which in Chinese means Runyang Changjiang Daqiao is a complex and longest bridge in the world spanning the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province, China, in Lower Nanjing. The complex is said to have had two bridges connecting the south bank of the river with Zhenjiang and Yangzhou in the north. In the location where the bridge was built, there is Shenzhou Island between the two bridges.
Runyang Bridge is part of the Yangzhou-Liyang Expressway. This bridge was built in October 2000, even earlier than expected. Before this bridge was completed, there was a 24 hour ferry service if you wished to cross the Yangtze River. At that time, if you want to go to Zhenjiang Station from Yangzhou, it will take you up to 40 minutes.
However, until now the ferry service is still working, you only need to pay 5 yuan and wait 5 minutes to receive the goods. According to some locals, ferries run faster to connect the cities of Zheng Jiaying and Yangzhou.
In its construction, this bridge cost 5.8 billion yuan or Rp 9 trillion. After the bridge was completed, it was opened to the public on April 30, 2005. The length of this bridge is about 35.66 km.
13. Donghai Bridge, China (32.5 KM)
Donghai Bridge is also one of the longest bridges in the world. This bridge has a length of about 32.5 km. This bridge is located in China, in Chinese this bridge is called Donghai Daqiao.
This bridge was completed on December 10, 2005 and opened to the public on May 1, 2008. This bridge connects mainland Shanghai with Yangshan port in the People’s Republic of China. This bridge also includes a cable-stayed bridge where large ships can pass under the 420 meter wide deck.
14. Shanghai Maglev Railway Bridge, China (30.5 KM)
China is indeed very amazing, because it has many of the longest bridges in the world. One of the longest bridges in the world is the ‘Shanghai Maglev Railway Bridge’ which is about 30.5 km long. This bridge spans the length of Downtown Shanghai. If you take the train on this line, you can enjoy the view of the blue sky and the beautiful view of the city of Shanghai.
15. Atchafalaya Basin Bridge, United States (29 KM)
The Atchafalaya Basin Bridge is also known as the Louisiana Airborne Memorial Bridge . This bridge is a pair of parallel bridges in the American city of Louisiana. This bridge is about 29 kilometers long, making it the third longest bridge in the United States.
This bridge was built in 1971 and opened to the public in 1973. The bridge has two exits, one to Whiskey Bay (Louisiana Highway 975) and the other to Butte La Rose (LA 3177). These bridges run parallel or opposite each other, but after crossing the Whiskey Bay Pilot Channel and the Atchafalaya River, they will join without crossing.
In daily traffic data, this bridge is always full with 30,420 passing vehicles. In fact, accidents often occur on this bridge because it has a narrow road and does not have a shoulder. After frequent accidents, in 1999 Governor Mike Foster reduced the speed across the bridge from 115 km/h to just 95 km/h.
It didn’t stop there, in 2003, the Louisiana Legislature changed speed again when crossing the Atchafalaya Basin bridge. For 18-wheeled vehicles, the top speed is reduced to 90 km/h. In this case, vehicle operators must also move to the right lane when crossing the bridge.
Author: Ziaggi Fadhil Zahran
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