History of the Youth Pledge – The Youth Pledge is an important milestone in the history of the Indonesian independence movement. This promise is seen as a crystallization of the spirit of asserting the ideals of the founding day of the Indonesian state.
The meaning of the Youth Pledge was determined by the Second Youth Congress which was held for two days, 27-28 October 1928 in Batavia (now Jakarta). This decision affirmed the ideals of “Indonesian homeland”, “Indonesian nation”, and “Indonesian language”. The decision should also form the basis for every “Indonesian national association” and be “published in various newspapers and read out before union meetings”.
The term “youth oath” itself did not appear in a congressional decision, but was introduced later. Where the youth oath appeared after the II Youth Congress. However, before that Youth I of course also became the impetus for the youth oath after the Youth Congress II.
On this occasion, Sinaumedia will discuss the history of the youth oath. For those of you who want to know more about the history of the youth oath, you can see the review below.
A historical atlas is an atlas that displays spatial information on a historical area at a certain time period. This book in front of you is a historical atlas (collection of maps) about the histories that occurred in Indonesia and those that occurred in the world. The great events that humans always remember are presented in this book.
Youth Congress I
The First Youth Congress was held from 30 April to 2 May 1926 at Banteng Square, Jakarta. During the meeting several things were discussed, starting from the composition of the central body, the idea of unity, the role of women, the role of religion, to the role of language in achieving Indonesian independence.
In 1908, the first national movement organization was born under the name “Budi Utomo”. Since Budi Utomo was founded, various youth organizations with regional characteristics have emerged, such as Tri Koro Dharmo or Jong Java, Jong Sumatranen Bond, Jong Ambon, and others.
Over time, wider organizations such as the Indonesian Association were born, which later became political organizations. Many other thoughts or ideas also came from many youth organizations that appeared but had one goal, namely the achievement of national goals.
One of the efforts to reach a consensus was to hold a large meeting, which was later called the First Youth Congress. The First Youth Congress was intended to generate a spirit of cooperation between youth organizations.
Youth Congress Committee I
The First Youth Congress was chaired by Mohammad Tabrani and Soemarmo was appointed as his deputy. While the secretary position was filled by Djamaluddin Adinegoro and Soewarso was appointed as treasurer. Apart from that, there were also members of the First Youth Congress consisting of Bahder Djohan, Jan Toule Soulehwij, Paul Pinontoan, Achmad Hamami, Sanusi Pane, and Sarbani.
Implementation of the Youth Congress I
In its implementation, the Youth Congress I lasted for three days. During these three days, of course, there will be different discussions at the meeting. The following is the implementation of the Youth Congress I.
The first meeting
The First Youth Congress was held on 30 April 1926 at the Vrijmetselaarsloge building (now the Bappenas building), at 20.00. The first day of the congress was opened with a speech by the chairman of the congress, namely Mohammad Tabrani. He talks that there is a way to get rid of the occupiers. Because of that, Tabrani asked all congress participants who attended to become a pillar of strength for Indonesian independence.
Regarding the Congress, Tabrani also said that the aim of the Congress was to increase the spirit of cooperation among Indonesian associations. After the opening of the Congress, representatives of each association were invited to speak. After everything went smoothly according to its purpose, the first day of the congress ended at 00.15.
On Monday, May 1, 1926, the congress was held again at 20.00. The main topic raised was the position of women presented by three speakers namely Bahder Djohan, Stientje Ticoalu-Adam, and Djaksodipoera. On the second day of the congress, Tabrani raised a discussion about women because, according to him, the struggle for independence was not only led by men. Bahder Djohan said that the topic of women is just as important to discuss, as political and economic ideals.
In a family, a woman who plays the role of a mother can start teaching her children to love their homeland. Therefore, the idea of national unity can be initiated by women in the family circle.
Apart from that, Mrs. Stientje also stated that although the position of women in Indonesia is not the same, there is one thing in common, namely the inner urge to gain freedom. Likewise Miss Adam, who said women can choose which one is best to campaign for. Then from the third speaker, Djaksodipoera gave his speech entitled “Rapak Lumuh”.
In his speech he said that the position of women is very weak in marriage, because they can be divorced at any time, but they cannot divorce their husbands. Therefore, Djaksodipoera obliges the wife to have the same rights as her husband. After expressing different opinions, there was a discussion on women’s issues. After the implementation of the second day went smoothly, the second day of congress ended at 24.00.
The third day of the First Youth Congress was held on May 2, 1926 and was held at 09.00. The agenda for the third day of the congress was listening to lectures from two speakers, Moh.Yamin and Pinontoan. Moh. Yamin gave a speech about languages in Indonesia, one of which is Malay which according to him is easy to learn and can be adapted for widespread use. Therefore, Moh. Yamin suggested that Malay could be used as the unifying language of the Indonesian people.
Apart from that, Pinontoan also talked about the importance of Islam and Christianity in Indonesia. He argued that, in order to achieve national unity in Indonesia, Muslims and Christians had to let go of their bigotry towards religion. Pinontoan said that in a solidarity movement, religion should not play a direct role. After completion, the third day of congress ended at 12.30 WIB.
Results of the Youth Congress I
After the First Youth Congress was held in three days, important results or points were found that had been discussed at the congress. The following are the results of the First Youth Congress.
- The ideals of an independent Indonesia are the aspirations of all Indonesian youth
- All youth associations strive to unite youth organizations in one forum
- Recognizing and accepting the ideals of Indonesian unity
These results can certainly support the progress of the Indonesian nation in terms of youth unity and integrity in Indonesia. Where the role of Indonesian youth was of course very important to make Indonesia a country free from colonialism at that time.
This book, which elaborates on Pancasila as an Indonesian philosophy on the one hand and on the spirit of mental revolution that can be contributed by it on the other hand, is truly valuable for the treasury of studies related to Pancasila in the current context of our nation’s life. The valuable contribution of this book lies in trying to describe Pancasila with images of our nation’s everyday mental revolution
Youth Congress II
The Second Youth Congress was held on 27-28 October 1928 in Jakarta led by Soegondo Djojopoespito from the Indonesian Student Association (PPPI). The congress was divided into three meetings, in which the second session of the Second Youth Congress discussed education issues.
The Second Youth Congress was the result of the failure of the First Youth Congress in 1926 to realize the ideals of youth unity. In addition, the reason for holding the II Youth Congress was to foster open political ideas among young people through various events.
For example, the failed KPI rebellion, the emergence of cooperative and non-cooperative youth movements, the return of members of the Indonesian Association from the Netherlands, and the formation of political parties after 1927. At the First Youth Congress which was held at Clubgebouw Jalan Kramat Raya on 2 May 1928 , the young students met and agreed to hold a Youth Congress II.
This II Youth Congress certainly has certain objectives in its implementation. This congress aims to realize the aspirations of all youth organizations in Indonesia, discuss the problems of Indonesian youth associations, and strengthen national awareness and Indonesian unity.
Youth Congress Committee II
On August 12, 1928, youths from various circles met again. At this meeting, the congress committee, time, place and tasks of the second youth conference were decided. After long discussions, it was decided to hold the II Youth Congress from 27 to 28 October 1928 in three different buildings.
The Second Youth Congress was chaired by Sugondo Joyopuspito and accompanied by RM Joko Marsaid as a representative player. Meanwhile, Moh. Yamin was elected secretary and Amir Sjarifuddin was elected treasurer. In addition, the committee for the Youth Congress II were Joham Mohammad Tjaja (first assistant), R Kaca Sungkana (II assistant), RCL Senduk (III assistant), Johanes Leimena (IV assistant), and Rochjani Soe`oed (V assistant).
Implementation of the Youth Congress II
More than 700 people from various groups and religions participated in the Second Youth Congress. The youth organizations participating in the Second Youth Congress were divided into three categories.
The first category has a regional character, such as Jong Java and Jong Sumatranen Bond. The second category is based on study clubs such as the Indonesian Study Club. The third is based on many nationalisms and religions, such as the Indonesian Association, Jong Islamieten Bond, and others. The Second Youth Congress was held for two days in 3 congresses and 3 different buildings as follows.
The first meeting
On October 27, 1928, the first meeting was held at the Catholic Youth Building from 19.30 to 23.30. At this meeting, the participants discussed the importance of the Malay language as a political language to create the unity and oneness of the Indonesian nation. In addition, the idea of hosting a struggle movement in the form of a national organization was discussed.
The second meeting was held on 28 October 1928 from 08.00 to 12.00 in the Oost Java Bioscoop building (now Jalan Medan Merdeka Utara). The participants discussed the important role of education in realizing Indonesian independence. The speakers at the congress were Sarmidi Mangoensarkoro, Sarwono, and Ki Hajar Devantoro who emphasized the importance of national education which must be given to all Indonesian children.
This third meeting was held on the same day as the second meeting, namely on 28 October 1928 from 17.30 to 23.30 at the Indonesische Clubgebouw Building. This congress discussed five matters, the scouting procession, presentation from Ramelan for scouting, presentation from the Indonesian Youth Movement and Youth in Tanah Luaran by Soenario, decision making and closing of the congress.
Results of the Second Youth Congress
On Sunday, October 28, 1928, at around 10.00 WIB, all participants in the Second Youth Congress gathered to summarize the results of the two-day congress. At that time, Moh. Yamin asked for time to read out the text of the resolution he had adopted.
In addition, on October 28, 1928, the chairman read out the decisions of the II Youth Congress and obtained the approval of the participants. When it was read out, the congress decision was referred to as the Youth Pledge, which became known as the Youth Pledge. Thus, the Second Youth Congress produced the Youth Pledge, which began in 1959, and is celebrated every October 28 as Youth Pledge Day.
Contents of the Youth Pledge
The following is the contents of the Youth Pledge which was the result of the Second Youth Congress which was held on 27-28 October 1928.
- We, sons and daughters of Indonesia, confess that we have one blood, the land of Indonesia.
- We sons and daughters of Indonesia, claim to be one nation, the Indonesian nation.
- We sons and daughters of Indonesia uphold the language of unity, the Indonesian language.
You, this is an article about the history of the Youth Pledge which discusses the First Youth Congress, the Second Youth Congress, and the contents of the Youth Pledge itself.