Tectonic earthquakes are – Recently, earthquakes have frequently occurred in Indonesia. Earthquake is a natural disaster, which can cause quite large losses. Earthquakes themselves are often grouped into two types, namely, tectonic earthquakes and volcanic earthquakes. On this occasion, we will discuss more about tectonic earthquakes. So, keep reading this article until it’s finished, Sinaumed’s.
Definition of Tectonic Earthquake
Earthquakes are vibrations that occur inside the earth which can cause movement of land and buildings on the surface of the earth. Earthquakes are caused by the movement of tectonic plates inside the earth, where when the tectonic plates collide or move with each other, the pressure and attraction that occurs can cause earthquakes.
Tectonic earthquakes are earthquakes caused by the movement of tectonic plates. Tectonic earthquakes can occur on land or at sea, and can cause serious damage if they occur near the earth’s surface. Tectonic earthquakes usually occur in areas that are along tectonic plate boundaries, such as along fault lines or in subduction zone areas.
A subduction zone is an area where one tectonic plate is uplifted or pulled under another plate. This usually occurs in areas along tectonic plate boundaries, where one tectonic plate moves toward another and is uplifted or pulled under it.
Subduction zones usually occur in areas that have volcanic topography or along active fault lines. The movement of tectonic plates in the subduction zone can cause tectonic earthquakes, and can also cause new volcanoes to form.
Tectonic plates are layers of the Earth’s crust consisting of rocks and minerals that move slowly over the deeper layers of the Earth’s mantle. Tectonic plates are formed from material released from magma in the earth’s crust, which then hardens into rock. Tectonic plates can move horizontally or vertically, and interactions between tectonic plates can cause tectonic earthquakes, faults, and volcanic activity. There are several types of plate tectonics, including passive, continental, and oceanic plates.
There are several types of tectonic plates, namely:
- Passive Plates: Passive plates are tectonic plates that are either stationary or moving very slowly. Passive plates are usually located on land, and can consist of igneous or metamorphic rocks.
- Continental Plate: Continental plate is a tectonic plate consisting of igneous material that forms on land. Continental plates are usually composed of lighter igneous rocks, such as granite, that lie on top of oceanic plates.
- Oceanic Plate: Oceanic plate is a tectonic plate consisting of rocks that form under the sea. Oceanic plates are usually composed of heavier igneous rocks, such as basalt, that lie beneath the continental plates.
Apart from that, there are also convergent, divergent, and transform plates, which are types of tectonic plates formed from interactions between tectonic plates. Convergent plates occur when two tectonic plates meet and one is pulled under the other, while diverging plates occur when two tectonic plates move in opposite directions and one of them is uplifted. Plate transform occurs when two tectonic plates move horizontally and slide past each other.
Example of a Tectonic Earthquake
An example of a tectonic earthquake is an earthquake that occurred along the San Andreas fault line in California, United States. The earthquake was caused by the movement of tectonic plates in the region, where the Pacific and North American plates collided and one of them was uplifted or pulled under the other. The San Andreas earthquake has caused serious damage to the region, including landslides and damage to buildings.
Tectonic earthquakes have been detected and studied in depth since the discovery of the theory of plate tectonics by Alfred Wegener in 1912. Wegener concluded that plate tectonics is a moving layer of the earth’s crust, and that interactions between tectonic plates can cause earthquakes. This theory was later developed by other geologists and tectonics, so that by the 1960s the theory of plate tectonics had become a widely accepted theory among scientists.
The first tectonic earthquake occurred, because earthquakes have occurred since the earth was formed. However, the history of recorded earthquakes dates back to ancient times, when humans began to record incidents of earthquakes that occurred in their area. The first record of an earthquake is found in an ancient tablet in Mesopotamia, which tells of an earthquake that occurred in the region in 2200 BC. Since then, many earthquakes have been recorded in history, and the theory of plate tectonics has helped scientists understand the causes of earthquakes.
The largest tectonic earthquake ever recorded was the earthquake in Chile in 1960, which had a magnitude of 9.5. This earthquake occurred along the Chile fault line, which is one of the longest and most active fault lines in the world.
This earthquake caused a tsunami that hit the coast of Chile as well as neighboring countries, such as Peru, Argentina and the United States. This earthquake caused serious damage in the region, and killed more than 5,000 people
Meanwhile, Indonesia is one of the countries in the Ring of Fire region , which is an area around the Pacific Ocean that has high tectonic and volcanic earthquake activity. This is caused by the interaction of tectonic plates in the region, where Indonesia is located between the Eurasian, Australian and Pacific plates.
As a result, Indonesia is frequently hit by tectonic earthquakes, including those that occur along the fault lines of Sumatra, Sulawesi and Bali. Some of the largest tectonic earthquakes that have occurred in Indonesia are the earthquake in Sumatra in 2004, which had a magnitude of 9.1, and the earthquake in Bali in 2018, which had a magnitude of 7.0.
Due to the Tectonic Earthquake
The effects of tectonic earthquakes can vary depending on the strength of the earthquake, the location of the earthquake, and the surrounding environmental conditions. Some common effects of tectonic earthquakes are damage to buildings, landslides, and the formation of new volcanoes.
Tectonic earthquakes can also cause tsunamis, which are sea waves caused by earth movements that occur after an earthquake. Strong tectonic earthquakes can cause huge material losses, and can even result in loss of life if they occur in densely populated areas.
An example of the damage produced by tectonic earthquakes is the earthquake in Haiti in 2010, which caused very serious damage to the region. This earthquake has a magnitude of 7.0 and occurred in the capital city of Haiti, Port-au-Prince. This earthquake caused the collapse of many buildings, including government buildings, hospitals and schools. This earthquake also caused landslides in several areas, and resulted in the loss of the lives of more than 200,000 people.
Some of the damage caused by tectonic earthquakes in Indonesia is damage to buildings, landslides, and the formation of new volcanoes. For example, the earthquake in Aceh in 2004 caused the collapse of many buildings in the area, including houses, schools and government buildings. This earthquake also caused a tsunami that hit the coast of Aceh, which added to the damage that occurred in the region. The earthquake in Lombok in 2018 also caused serious damage to the region, including the collapse of many buildings, landslides and the formation of a new volcano.
Tectonic earthquakes can cause changes in the surrounding nature, depending on the strength of the earthquake and the surrounding environmental conditions. Some natural changes that can be produced by tectonic earthquakes are landslides, the formation of new volcanoes, and changes in the shape of the earth’s surface.
For example, the earthquake in Sumatra in 2004 caused landslides in several areas around it, resulting in a change in the shape of the earth’s surface in that area. Earthquakes can also cause tsunamis, which are sea waves that can change the shape of the coast and seabed.
Causes of Tectonic Earthquakes
The cause of tectonic earthquakes is the movement of tectonic plates in the earth. Tectonic plates are layers of the Earth’s crust consisting of rocks and minerals that move slowly over the deeper layers of the Earth’s mantle. When tectonic plates collide or move against each other, the resulting pressure and pull can cause earthquakes. Tectonic earthquakes can occur on land or at sea, and can cause serious damage if they occur near the earth’s surface.
Tectonic earthquakes occur due to the movement of tectonic plates under the earth’s surface. These tectonic plates consist of layers of rock that move over one another. Usually, this movement occurs slowly, but over time there is an accumulation of stress between the tectonic plates that cause earthquakes.
The movement of these tectonic plates can occur along fault lines that are under the earth’s surface. This fault line is the boundary between two tectonic plates that are moving against each other. When an earthquake occurs, these tectonic plates will press against each other and shift one another, causing vibrations that can be felt on the earth’s surface. Tectonic earthquakes usually occur in areas along these fault lines.
The movement of tectonic plates is caused by several factors, one of which is heat from within the Earth. This heat causes the tectonic plates to flatten and cause movement. In addition, gravitational forces and frictional forces between plates also cause the movement of tectonic plates. This movement can occur slowly or rapidly, depending on several factors, such as the type of tectonic plates and the strength of the forces acting.
There are three types of plate tectonics namely basic plates, tectonic plates, and continental plates. Base plates form beneath the ocean and are composed of raw magmatic material. Tectonic plates form on top of base plates and consist of pre-formed rock. Continental plates form on top of tectonic plates and consist of igneous rocks that have already formed. The movement of tectonic plates can occur in all types of plates, but usually occurs in plate tectonics and continental plates.
Earthquake Types According to Earthquake Depth
There are several types of earthquakes based on the depth of occurrence, including the following:
1. Shallow earthquake
This earthquake occurred at a depth of less than 70 km from the earth’s surface. Usually these shallow earthquakes are louder and more damaging than those that occur at deeper depths.
2. Intermediate earthquake
This earthquake occurred at a depth of between 70-300 km from the earth’s surface. These medium-sized earthquakes are usually not too strong and not as damaging as shallow earthquakes, but they can still be felt by residents around the earthquake-affected area.
3. Deep earthquake
This earthquake occurred at a depth of more than 300 km from the earth’s surface. These deep earthquakes are usually not felt by residents on the surface of the earth, but can trigger medium earthquakes or shallow earthquakes in the surrounding area.
Types of Earthquake Based on the Source of the Cause of the Earthquake
There are several types of earthquakes based on the source of their occurrence, including the following:
1. Tectonic earthquake
Tectonic earthquakes are earthquakes caused by the movement of tectonic plates under the earth’s surface. These tectonic earthquakes usually occur in areas that are along fault lines below the earth’s surface.
2. Volcanic earthquake
A volcanic earthquake is an earthquake caused by volcanic activity inside a volcano. These volcanic earthquakes usually occur around active volcanoes, and can occur during volcanic eruptions or eruptions.
3. Strange tectonic earthquakes
Pelic tectonic earthquakes are earthquakes caused by tectonic movements within the earth, but do not occur along fault lines like ordinary tectonic earthquakes. These complex tectonic earthquakes usually occur in areas where there are no clear fault lines, such as offshore or on the ocean floor.
4. Earthquake eruption
Eruptive earthquakes are earthquakes caused by volcanic eruptions or eruptions. These eruptive earthquakes usually occur immediately after an eruption or volcanic eruption, and can cause considerable damage around the area.
What to do when an earthquake occurs
- To deal with an earthquake disaster, the first thing is to ensure the safety of yourself and those around you.
- If you are in a building, try to take cover under a table or behind a door. If you are outdoors, try to stay away from tall buildings or structures that might collapse.
- Once you are sure that you and those around you are safe, try to communicate with others and seek emergency assistance if needed.
- Don’t forget to follow the directions and instructions from the responsible disaster management officer.
A tectonic earthquake is an event that occurs when the rock layers below the earth’s surface move. This movement can cause an earthquake that can damage buildings and cause other damage. The conclusion from tectonic earthquakes is that the movement of rock layers beneath the earth’s surface can cause earthquakes that can damage the surrounding environment.