Lineage Is: Definition, Factors and Systems in Islamic Religion

Etymologically, lineage is al qorobah or relatives. Relatives are called lineage, because
between the two words there is a relationship and connection.
The word lineage comes from the
phrase nisbatuhu ilaa abiihi nasabaah which means lineage to his father.

In the teachings of Islam, lineage is an important thing that every Muslim must know, because lineage is related
to inheritance rights, guardianship and other important matters.

In addition, to hold a marriage, a Muslim must carry it out in accordance with the Shari’a, so he must
understand who the legal guardian is and so on.
In order to better understand the meaning of
lineage, Sinaumed’s can listen to the explanation further in the following article.

Definition of Lineage in General and
According to Scholars

The word lineage is a relative or descendant. Nasab comes from Arabic, namely from the word
al-nasb which means connecting kinship, descent or mentioning the descent itself.

If the word al-nasab is formed into a tanasub sentence, then the meaning is relationship, bond, similarity
and equality.
According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI) lineage is descent, especially
descent from the father’s side.
However, lineage is not just descent, the word lineage can also
be used to define blood relations horizontally, for example, such as aunts, siblings, uncles and
others.

Nasab can also be defined as a rope that connects family and other blood relations. While the
definition of the word lineage according to the term is offspring obtained from legal marriage and has ties
or blood relations, which is called family, both families with vertical blood relations such as father,
mother, grandmother and grandfather, or families with horizontal characteristics such as aunts, uncles,
brothers and others.

Understanding lineage according to the Ulama

Meanwhile, according to the scholars the definition of nisab is as follows:

1. Ibn Aby Taghlib

According to Ibnu Abu Taghlib, lineage is al ittishal baina insanain bi al isytirak fi wiladatin qariibatin aut
ba’idatin which means the relationship of attachment between two people with equality in birth either near or
far.

2. Wahba Al-Zuhaili

The definition of lineage according to Wahbah Al Zuhaili is a support that is strong enough to be able to place a
family relationship in accordance with the unity of blood or the consideration that one is part of the other.

For example when there is a child who is part of the father and a father part of his grandfather.
So, people who are in the same lineage as bloodlines are people who have the same blood ties with
the child, father and grandfather.

3. Ibn Athiyah

Ibnu Athiyah stated that the meaning of lineage is a human being who gathers together with others in a fatherly
or maternal relationship, whether it is a close relationship or a distant relationship.

Nasab Determination System

Quoted from the insideislam.com page , when viewed according to anthropology there are several
systems of determining lineage or descent that apply to various regions in the world.
There
are four systems of determining lineage, as follows.

1. Bilateral or parental system

The first system of determining lineage is the bilateral or parental system, which means that offspring assume
that offspring come from kinship from both sides of the parents, be it father or mother.

2. The patrilineal system

The second system is patrilineal, which means it is a system which states that lineage is obtained from kinship
relations through the male side only and not from the mother’s side.

In the patrilineal lineage determination system, descent is only considered or only seen from the father’s family
relatives.

3. The matrilineal system

The matrilineal lineage determination system is the opposite of the patrilineal system, meaning that the
matrilineal system is a hereditary system that takes into account the kinship of the mother or the woman only.

4. Bilineal system

The last system is the bilineal system which is also known as the unilateral dubbel, which is a system that pays
attention to kinship or kinship from the father’s or male’s side only for certain things and thus, descent from
the woman’s side only applies to certain things.

Based on these four systems of lineage determination, in the opinion of Islamic scholars who refer to the sunnah
and the Koran, Islam adheres to a bilateral or parental system.

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Meanwhile, fiqh scholars argue that lineage in Islam tends to adhere to a patrilineal system.
This is in accordance with the word of Allah in the letter Al Ahzab verse 4, following the sound of
the verse.

مَّا جَعَلَ ٱللَّهُ لِرَجُلٍ مِّن قَلْبَيْنِ فِى جَوْفِهِۦ ۚ وَمَا جَعَلَ أَزْوَٰجَكُمُ ٱلَّٰٓـِٔى تُظَٰهِرُونَ
مِنْهُنَّ أُمَّهَٰتِكُمْ ۚ وَمَا جَعَلَ أَدْعِيَآءَكُمْ أَبْنَآءَكُمْ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ قَوْلُكُم بِأَفْوَٰهِكُمْ ۖ
وَٱللَّهُ يَقُولُ ٱلْحَقَّ وَهُوَ يَهْدِى ٱلسَّبِيلَ

Arabic-Latin: Mā ja’alallāhu lirajulim ming qalbaini fī jaufih, wa mā ja’ala azwājakumul-lā`ī tuẓāhirụna
min-hunna ummahātikum, wa mā ja’ala ad’iyā`akum abnā`akum, żālikum qaulukum bi`afwāhikum, wallāhu yaqụlul-ḥaqqa
wa huwa yahdis-sabīl

Meaning: Allah never makes for a person two hearts in his cavity; and He did not make your
wives whom you zhihar were your mothers, and He did not make your adopted children your (own) biological
children.
That is only what you say in your mouth. And Allah tells the truth and
He shows the (right) way.

Factors or Causes for Determining a
Person’s Lineage

Lineage is an important matter in the teachings of Islam, because lineage determines several things such as
inheritance rights and so on.
Therefore, in determining the lineage there are several things
that need to be considered.

In the teachings of Islam, there are at least three main factors that determine a person’s lineage.
Here’s a further explanation.

  • Through Legal Marriage

Fiqh experts and scholars explain that a child born to a woman through a legal marriage is a child from a
man or from the father.
There are also to become the lineage of the child, then there are
several requirements that must be met including the following:

  1. The husband is mature and mature in a biological sense, so it is certain that the husband will be able to
    give birth to a child. If the husband is unable to give birth or has certain venereal diseases, then the
    husband cannot be linked by lineage with the child.
  2. The age of the fetus or the womb of the wife must be at least six months from the wedding day.
    This is in accordance with the Hanafi school of thought, but according to the opinion of other
    schools of thought, the gestational age must be six months or more from the time the intercourse
    occurred after carrying out a legal marriage.
  3. If the age of the fetus is less, then the child cannot be related to the husband’s lineage.
  4. Husband and wife engage in intercourse or intercourse after carrying out an outward or biological marriage,
    this third factor is in accordance with the opinions of the three schools of thought.
  5. Meanwhile, according to other opinions there are those who reveal that relationships may only be
    rational or imaginary.
    Even so, children who are recognized according to lineage are
    children who are obtained through outward relationships.
  6. Then if the husband feels that he has never had sex with his wife, but the wife is pregnant, then the
    husband is allowed to drop accusations of lian or the child in the wife’s womb is not his child and the
    result of adultery or infidelity in the household or adultery in Islam.
  • Through Fasid Marriage

Fasid marriage is a marriage that is carried out but does not meet the requirements or even the pillars of
marriage that apply in Islam.
Examples include marriages involving women who are still
undergoing the iddah divorce period, whether they are divorced or divorced.

Then if there is a child born to the woman, then the child is related by lineage to the husband through marriage,
provided that the husband has the same conditions as the cause of determining lineage through a marriage, namely
being able to impregnate his wife, the gestational age of the wife is more than 6 months and there was
intercourse, causing the wife to become pregnant.

  • Nasab karen Wati Syubhat

The determining factor for the next lineage is because of wati syubhat. Wati syubhat is
intercourse that occurs without any intention.
For example, when there is a man who is having
sex with someone in a room without lighting and the man does not see the face of the woman he considers to
be his wife.

Because of this, sexual intercourse with wati syubhat is a mistake and if the woman gives birth, the children
will be related to the man who had intercourse with her.

There is also a requirement for the male to become the lineage of a child born with wat syubhat, namely if
the minimum gestational age has reached six months and the gestation period of the woman or the birth of a
child has not passed the maximum period of pregnancy, which is nine months and ten days.
If a
child is born later than the gestation period, then his lineage cannot be related to a man who has sexual
intercourse in a way that is doubtful.

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Nasab Law in Islam

Lineage in the teachings of Islam is very important, because with the existence of lineage, philosophically the
members of the extended family have a very strong connection, so that it becomes the main foundation so that a
strong human group can be formed in which each member of the group is bound or related to other members. other.

Islamic religious law has prohibited a father from denying the lineage of his children, so a mother is forbidden
to connect the child’s lineage with the real father.

In addition, Islamic religious law also forbids linking a child’s lineage to an adoptive father.
This is in accordance with the following hadith:

أَيُّمَا امْرَأَةٍ أَدْخَلَتْ عَلَى قَوْمٍ مَنْ لَيْسَ مِنْهُمْ فَلَيْسَتْ مِنَ اللَّهِ فِي شَيْءٍ، وَلَمْ
يُدْخِلْهَا اللَّهُ جَنَّتَهُ، وَأَيُّمَا رَجُلٍ جَحَدَ وَلَدَهُ وَهُوَ يَنْظُرُ إِلَيْهِ احْتَجَبَ اللَّهُ
مِنْهُ وَفَضَحَهُ عَلَى رُءُوسِ الْخَلَائِقِ فِي الْأَوَّلِينَ وَالْآخِرِينَ

“Any woman who assigns a child to a people who are not from that people, then she does not get anything
(mercy) from Allah.
And He will not admit that woman into His heaven.”

“Likewise, any man who denies his child, while he is looking at him, Allah will prevent himself from him and He
will actually open his disgrace in front of all creatures, both the first generation and the last generation,”
(HR Abu Dawud).

A person’s lineage determines inheritance rights and guardianship rights. The following is an
explanation regarding lineage rights and inheritance rights in Islamic teachings.

  • Nasab Rights

The nasab rights of a husband and wife are children, namely lineage. So, anyone who has a
child from a marriage, be it a husband or wife, has the right to the lineage of the child.

In fact, besides stipulating, the Shari’a also regulates this right quite strictly, so that no one may
assign someone to something that is not his right.
So thus, a man is not allowed to deny a
child born of his flesh and blood.

  • Inheritance Rights

When talking about a person’s nasab rights in Islam, they usually also discuss inheritance rights and
guardianship rights.

Islamic religious law stipulates, if the wife dies and does not have a child in the marriage, then the husband
will get a share of half of his inheritance.

Meanwhile, if the wife dies and she has children, then the husband will also get one-fourth of the wife’s
inheritance.

However, if the husband dies and has a child, the wife will get ⅛ of her husband’s inheritance.
The division of inheritance rights is in accordance with the word of Allah in the letter An Nisa
verse 12. The following verse reads.

وَلَكُمْ نِصْفُ مَا تَرَكَ أَزْوَاجُكُمْ إِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُنَّ وَلَدٌ فَإِنْ كَانَ لَهُنَّ وَلَدٌ فَلَكُمُ
الرُّبُعُ مِمَّا تَرَكْنَ مِنْ بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصِينَ بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ وَلَهُنَّ الرُّبُعُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُمْ
إِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَكُمْ وَلَدٌ فَإِنْ كَانَ لَكُمْ وَلَدٌ فَلَهُنَّ الثُّمُنُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ
وَصِيَّةٍ تُوصُونَ بِهَا أَوْ دَيْن

It means:

“To you (husbands) half of the property left by your wives, if they do not have children. If
your wives have children, then you get a quarter of the property left by them after fulfilling the will they
made or (and) the debt has been paid.”

“Wives get a quarter of what you leave if you don’t have children. If you have children, then
the wives get one-eighth of the assets that you leave after fulfilling the will that you made or (and) after
paying your debts,” (Sura An-Nisa’ verse 12).

Islam does not only regulate lineage laws, but also about the maintenance of lineage. Islam
strictly prohibits all relationships that deviate from the Shari’a and does not allow relationships other
than relationships that occur on a household ship or marriage according to syar’i.

Among the maintenance of the Islamic religion in lineage is quite harsh criticism of various kinds of denial of
lineage and threats given to fathers or mothers who deny the existence of their child’s lineage, the attitude of
breaking away from the child or when the father and mother punish a child who is not from them or not.

That is the explanation regarding lineage is the rope that connects families with other blood relations.

For Sinaumed’s who want to learn more about lineage or fiqh in Islam, they can get information by reading books.
sinaumedia.com #Friends Without Limits Sinaumed’s always provides various kinds of quality and
original books for Sinaumed’s.

Reading lots of books and articles will never hurt you, because Sinaumed’s will get #MoreWithReading information and
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Author: Khansa

Reference:

  • https://dalamislam.com/dasar-islam/arti-nasab
  • https://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nasab
  • https://id.news.yahoo.com/nasab-ada-kins-atau-descent-100000595.html
  • https://www.orami.co.id/magazine/nasab#hak-nasab
  • https://tafsirweb.com/7616-surat-al-ahzab-ayat-4.html