Know the function of the stigma in flowers and other floral organs

Function of the stigma of the stigma – Hello friends , Sinaumed’s , surely many of you
think that flowers are just decoration or a sweetener for plants.
Even though flowers
actually have a very important and vital function for the plant itself.
It can be said that
flowers are very important organs because flowers are one of the reproductive organs with the main
function for the process of plant reproduction.

A flower is said to be complete if its organs are complete. The organs normally present in
perfect flowers are the corolla, petals, pistils, and even the stamens.
Meanwhile, imperfect
flowers usually do not have all four parts.

Flowers that do not have one of these organs can interfere with the reproduction of the plant itself.
Indeed, each flower organ has its own function. The following is a complete
explanation of the function of the stigma and other organs in flowers!

Definition of pistil head

The stigma is one of the components of the pistil or female genitalia in flowers. In the
flowers of the female genitalia in pollination, among others: stalk, pistil, stigma and ovary.

According to the book Easy Ways to Face Final Exams 2007 Matrix Media Literata Team (2007), during
pollination, pollen grains fall on the stigma.
Pollination is followed by fertilization.
Fertilization is the process of fusing sperm (male) with an egg (female). Pollen that
falls on the stigma will form a tube through the stigma to reach the ovule.

The result of this fertilization is a zygote or biological institution. The zygote and bladder
will grow into seeds.
The seeds that are planted will fall to the ground and grow roots or
sprouts

Flower Function

The function of flowers is to attract pollinators to pollinate plants to help pollinate plants to produce
seeds.
Bright colors, strong scents and sweet nectar combine to attract birds, bees and other
insects that transfer pollen from one flower to another.
After pollination, the flowers turn
into seeds.
There are at least 4 functions of interest that you should know, namely:

  • The most important and vital function of flowers is as a means of reproduction.
  • The second function of flowers is to attract birds, insects and bees to the ground and
    pollinate them.
  • The function of the third flower is to accommodate or function as a place for the fusion of
    male and female gametes.
  • The fourth flower function is to produce seeds.

Of course, in addition to these four functions of flowers, you can also add that humans can appreciate flowers
for their beauty. The most important thing is that you humans don’t damage them and don’t prevent flowers from
reproducing.

In addition, the function of flowers as genetic reproduction can be broken down into 4, namely:

1. Plant Reproductive Organs

The function of the flower itself is to combine or combine the fusion of sperm or male gametes with ovum or
female gametes.
With this, seed production will be realized. The arrangement or
arrangement of flowers in one stem can be referred to as flowering.
The reproductive organs of
flowers are called stamens and pistils.

2. Attracts Polinators

As we know there are animals whose main food is nectar. During this time, the flowers have
nectar or a sweet liquid.
If you use symbiosis, nectar will be taken as food, where pollination
of flowers takes place.

During pollination, pollen moves from the male flower head to the female stigma. Thus, the
meeting of pollen and pistil will cause gamete lysis in plants.

3. Producing Nectar or Flower Sarees

Flowers always give honey. Nectar has a very high sugar content, which is why it is called the
sweet floral liquid.
This sweet liquid is produced when the plant is in flower.

When the flowers bloom, that’s when the nectar-eating animals will be attracted to the flowers.
The more animals that are attracted, the faster the pollination process.

4. Beautiful Parts of Plants

Not infrequently flowers become an integral part of plants. So that the flowers are always
brightly colored and attractive shape.
If the plant doesn’t flower, it may be less attractive
to look at.
Bright colors and varied shapes make flowers a very popular ornamental plant.
So far, flowers are still preferred by many people to be planted as ornamental plants in their yard
gardens.

Pistil Head Function

The stigma is the part that is at the very top of the pistil. The main function of the stigma
is as a place to receive pollen during the pollination process.

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Function of the stigma in Pollination

Any reproduction of flowering plants is always accompanied by pollination. Pollination is the
process by which pollen reaches the pistil through the threads.
Pollination is divided into
three types of pollination, namely self-pollination, cross-pollination and cross-pollination.

1. Self Pollination

Self-pollination can only occur in flowering plants of the same type or in flowering plants of a different
type, but always of the same type.
Self-pollination can be observed in barley, long beans,
sesame, rice, chickpeas and others.
However, self-pollination has its drawbacks, namely the
seeds obtained from this pollination cannot germinate.

Self pollination is further divided into two categories: natural self pollination and artificial self
pollination.
Natural self-pollination is pollination that occurs when flowering plants have
complete reproductive organs.

Complete reproductive organs consist of stamens and pistils which are located inside the flower.
In other words, flowering plants that do not have complete reproductive organs cannot
self-pollinate naturally.

Artificial self-pollination is the process of pollination through human intervention.
Self-pollination assisted by human intervention is known as self-crossing or self-fertilization.
The way pollination works, for example, humans collect the available pistils on the stamens and
then the pollen is placed on the stigma of the same flowering plant.

2 . Cross Pollination

Having discussed self-pollination, we will now discuss cross-pollination. Cross pollination is
the pollination of the stamens and pistils that occurs in two different plant species.

An intermediate is needed during cross pollination. This intermediary aims to transport pollen
from one flower to another.
You can see cross-pollination mediators in insects, such as
butterflies, wasps, hummingbirds, in the wind.

These nectar-eating animals really need flowers as a food source because flowers contain nectar.
As these animals forage on one flower and another, some of the pollen grains attach to the pistil
and this is where cross pollination takes place.

It is important to emphasize during cross pollination that not all flowers are valued by insects.
In general, these insects only like striking flower colors and pungent odors. However,
with butterflies it is different.
Flowers also contain honey, butterflies love flowers.

Meanwhile, pollination with the help or wind usually occurs in flowering plants without heads and flower petals,
such as weeds.

3. Pollination of the Bastar

Pollination occurs when pollen from one flower lands on the stigma of another flower of the same but
different type.
Pollination is usually assisted by animals such as bees, beetles and
butterflies or birds such as hummingbirds, starlings and sparrows, but some are assisted by wind, water and
humans.

Wind-assisted pollination occurs in flowers that have the following characteristics:

  • There are many of them and they gather to form groups
  • Dry pollen, numerous, small and light
  • Small crown or no crown
  • Large anther shape
  • Long stalks
  • The stigma is hairy and sticks out

Functions of Other Flower Components

1. Flower stalks

The first part of the flower is the flower stalk. Flower stalks are located at the bottom of
the flower.
The flower stalk acts as a link between the flower and the branch. In
addition to the connecting function, the flower stalk also has a function as a flower support.

2. Flower Base

The second part of the interest rate is the interest base. The base of the flower is located
at the bottom of the flower, just above the stalk.
The floral base serves as a place to fix the
wreath.

3. Petals

The third part of the flower is the petals. Petals are located on the outside of the flower.
The petals protect the petals while they are still buds and will open when the petals are in full
bloom.

Petals usually match the color and shape of the leaves. Each petal is called a calyx.
In some flowers, besides the petals, additional petals grow or what is commonly known as
epicalicia.

4. Flower Crown

The fourth part of the flower is the flower crown. The flower crown is located in the second
layer and is adjacent to the flower petals.
Flower crowns are used to attract insects and/or
other animals to live, which will help pollinate.

In addition to the main function of attracting insects and/or other animals for pollination, flower garlands have
another function, which is to protect the genitals of flowers before pollination occurs.

The corolla is the most beautiful and often brightly colored part of the flower. Flower crowns
are also commonly referred to as floral ornaments.
Each flower crown also has its own name,
namely petal.

5. Stamens (Male Genitals)

The fifth part of the flower is the stamen. The stamens are usually in the center of the
corolla.
The main function of the stamens is as a means of reproduction (male genitalia) of
plants.

The stamens are divided into 3 parts, namely the anther, the anther and the connecting rod.
The stamen is the filiform part which is usually round in cross section while the anther is the
part of the stamen which is located at the end of the stamen.

The function of the stamens can be divided into three parts, namely:

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a. Sari stalk

The stamens are part of the stamens which have the function of making the anthers position high enough from
the flower crown.
The stamens are thread-like in cross section and generally round in
shape.

b. Head Sari

The anther is the part of the stamen that functions as a reservoir for pollen. The location of
the anther is above the anther stalk.
The anthers inside have two juice compartments.
Inside the pollen chamber there are pollen grains.

Pollen is a male cell multiplication tool. This powder is attached to the anthers.
This powder will also be carried by insects and other animals and will stick to other
flowers.

c. Sari Room Liaison

The liaison of the sari chamber is the stem or stalk of the sari gang which has a function as a liaison between
the two parts of the anther which are on the right and the left.

6. Pistil (Female Genitals)

The sixth part of the flower is the pistil. The pistil is usually located in the center of the
flower.
Pistils are the main function of reproductive (female) plants.

Pistil also has its own parts, namely:

a. Pistil Head

stigma (stigma), the stigma is located at the very top of the pistil. The stigma is generally
sticky because the stigma is a place for pollen to attach.

b. Pistil stalk

The pistil stalk is the part that connects the pistil to the ovary. Apart from functioning as
a binder, the stalk also has a function as a force support so that it can stand upright, steady and stay in
place.
The pistil has a pollen tube which functions to support the fertilization process by
providing an ovary.

c. Ovary

Will fruit or can also be referred to as ovary / ovary is one part of the pistil that rests on the base of
the flower.
The fruit will enlarge when the pollination process is complete. In
the ovary, there is also a carpel/carpellum.
Carpell/carpellum is a fruit leaf where each fruit
leaf contains an ovule or what can also be called an ovule/ovulum.

d. Seed

Ovule also known as ovule, is the structural part of the seed plant, which protects and stores the ovum.
The seeds will then develop into seeds after fertilization is complete. The ovule is easily visible
in plants with open seeds and in flowering plants the ovule is covered with ovule.

Flowers are also one of the plant organs that require nutrients for their survival. Therefore,
in each flower you can find different transporters that serve as food for that flower.

Things That Help the Generative Pollination
Process

There are several things that can affect plant pollination. These elements can come from
natural activities or from other living organisms.
The following are things that can help the
success of plant pollination.

1. Generative Reproduction with the Help of
the Wind

The process of pollination or the method of propagating plants with the help of the wind is often called
anemogamy.
The feature of this reproductive process is that it often occurs in plants that live
in places where there is not too much water and tends to be arid.
In addition, the pollen
produced is usually dry and the crown size is relatively smaller.

During this pollination, the wind moves the stem causing the stamen to fall onto the pistil and pollination
occurs in the plant.
Examples of plants that reproduce or pollinate are often assisted by the
wind, namely grass and corn.

2. Generative reproduction with the help of
animals

Reproduction or the process of pollination with the help of animals, can also be called zoidiogamy.
The main characteristics of plants that reproduce in this way are that these plants usually produce
nectar which is brightly colored and has an odor or fragrance that animals like.

During this pollination, the plant will emit characteristics such as bright colors or attractive smells to
attract animals.
Then the animal will land causing the pollen to stick to the animal.
The animals then latch on to other flowers and spread the sticky pollen onto their bodies for a
smooth pollination process.

An example of a plant that relies on breeding or pollination in this way is the rafflesia arnoldi flower.
Rafflesia arnoldi flowers will emit a very pleasant smell, attracting flies to perch.
The flies will then go to other Rafflesia Arnoldi flowers and fix the pollen from the previous
flower, which will accelerate the pollination of the Rafflesia Arnoldi flower.

3. Generative propagation with the help of
water

Generative reproduction can also occur using water, also known as irrigation. Vegetative tangs
reproduce in this way, often with special traits, namely;
The entire tree trunk is covered in
water, the tree’s habitat is also in the water, the tree acts as a producer of food for the animals around
it.

This reproduction usually occurs in plants such as algae or seaweed. Pollination in algal
plants occurs when water washes over the stamens and accidentally attaches them to the pistils of other
algae.

4. Generative Reproduction with Human
Assistance

In addition to pollination with the help of wind, animals and water, there are also breeding plants that
develop only with human assistance.
This process of human reproduction is also commonly
referred to as anthropogamy.

Examples of plants propagated by cloning include vanilla, salak and even orchids. In orchids,
pollination with the help of humans is necessary because these plants have only one sex organ per flower.
Therefore, the resumption of stamens with pistils requires human assistance.