Grafting as a Plant Breeding Technique and How to Do It!

Grafting – Of the many plant propagation techniques, there is one that has an easy-to-understand process, although you still have to be extra careful. The technique in question is the grafting technique. Sinaumed’s, have you ever heard of the term grafting?

In short, grafting is done to improve the quality of plants or to reproduce plants, by attaching buds from the initial stem and other stems. Meanwhile, this technique is called artificial vegetative because it is done by humans.

Many misguided regarding grafting and other breeding techniques. In fact, grafting has its own way and of course the results are different from other techniques. So, what exactly is the meaning of grafting, its purpose, benefits, and conditions?
Here’s the full review. Let’s see together!

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Definition of Occulation

Grafting or shield budding is a technique of vegetative propagation of plants. Generally, this technique is used to improve the quality of the plant itself. This method has been widely practiced and developed by farmers, and to do so requires special skills.

Shield budding itself is often known as T-budding in English. Performing grafting involves rootstocks (or stems with a well-developed root system). A vertical cut is made to separate the bark from the cambium (the layer of cells between the inner bark and wood), followed by a perpendicular cut just above it, forming a “T”.

This technique will allow the cut stem to be reduced to a single bud with the tree being sliced. The resulting plants are clones, or plants that are genetically identical by being reproduced from one individual entirely by vegetative means.

The process of adding scion wood with shoots from the tree that will be developed with rootstock cuttings is a method of propagation called grafting, and is widely used in the world of vineyards.

Purpose of Grafting

Actually, what is plant breeding for, especially grafting, done? Here are the main goals of doing plant grafting:

  • Get a new type of plant that is profitable. For example, immunity from disease or other superior and positive properties of ordinary plants.
  • Obtaining the results of combining two traits or types of plants in the parent grafting.

Benefits of Grafting

Propagation of grafting itself turns out to have several benefits. The following are the benefits of grafting on plants, Sinaumed’s.

1. The process of fertilization or reproduction is faster

The existence of grafting can impact on a faster breeding process. The reason is, this is influenced by the age of the plant and superior parental characteristics, as well as fast growth.

2. Plant Productivity will Increase

As a vegetative propagation technique, grafting can increase the productivity of a plant. Because, this process is supported by the parent or seeds with high production. This is what drives the increase in quality and productivity of plants resulting from profitable grafting.

3. Plants Grow More Uniformly

Uniform properties will emerge from the results of plants bred by grafting. This is because grafting is a vegetative propagation technique without fusion, so that one parent plant can reproduce itself and its offspring have identical characteristics.

Application of grafting “T”

The grafting technique in the “T” shape is widely used to propagate clones of temperate and tropical fruit trees, to temperate ornamental shade trees. For tropical fruit trees, such as oranges, “T” is planted on most of the seedling rootstock.

Meanwhile, temperate ornamental shade trees such as cultivars of red maple, honey locust, green ash, and Norwegian maple are grown on seedling rootstocks, as they are difficult to root from cuttings or clonal propagation.

Greenhouse roses are T grafted onto rooted shoot cuttings, either after or before rooting (a practice known as stenting ) in the greenhouse.

Graduation Terms

1. Not Plants with New Leaves Growing

The grafting window in the form of skin has properties, one of which is influenced by the process of forming new leaves. When a plant is growing new leaves, the skin that is slashed for the grafting window will dry faster. For this reason, this new leaf determines the success of the grafting technique.

2. Free of Pests or Diseases

Either the plant from the bud or the mother plant, both must be free from disease or pest infections. This needs to be anticipated so that grafting avoids the risk of failure. This is because pests and diseases in plants can interfere with the grafting process.
Not only that, plants that are attacked by pests or disease will actually later become a source of infection in grafted plants.

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3. Age of the Upper and Lower Stems are the same

The similar age of scion and rootstock will support the success of the grafting process because it greatly influences the speed of bud formation. This supports the need for age harmony between the two parent plants.

Plants that are made as rootstocks, should come from seeds so that the roots are stronger, so they are relatively drought resistant. Not only that, the rootstock must also be able to attach properly and support the growth of the scion without causing negative effects. This is why it takes the same stem age.

4. Both Plants Must Come from the Same Genus

It is important that the two plants used for grafting come from the same family or genus. Own grafting is rarely applied to plants of different genera because it has a low success rate. This is due to physiological differences between plants that can occur, so it is necessary to avoid grafting using plants of the same genus.

The Right Timing For Grafting

The results of successful grafting are signaled or marked by the shoots of the scion material being formed and mature, while the rootstock material is in a state of active growth, so that the bark “slips”. This means that the vascular cambium is actively growing and the bark can be easily peeled off from slightly damaged pieces.

This moment generally occurs according to the period when the vascular cambium is active (spring, summer). During dormancy, stock plants (winter, early spring, late fall), or drought stress, bark grafting methods such as T-budding are not viable because the bark will tear, not just slip.

Grafting can be done on certain fruit trees and at the right time. For example, peaches, in June using cold-stored grafting cuttings and rootstocks of field-planted seedlings.

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How to do grafting on plants

After knowing the meaning, purpose, benefits, and application, then, how do you do grafting on plants?

Individual grafting is the most common technique, in which a “T”-shaped slit is made with a knife to loosen the bark. The buds used are in the axils of the leaves, and they may be so small that they are almost invisible.

Here’s how to do grafting on plants, which consists of several steps and explanations:

1. Choose Healthy Buds

The shoots selected are those that look healthy and fresh. This bud needs to be on a branch to show good growth throughout the season it has passed. Apart from that, what is used is not from the inside of the tree with slender trunks, closely spaced, and small buds.

The leaf blade is cut from the piece to be attached, leaving the petiole intact.

2. Cut a Bud and a Piece of Wood

Cut off the bud and the small piece of wood underneath using an upward slicing motion. These cuts in the wood should be made about one-half to three-fourths of an inch below the bud, as well as going deep enough into the wood.

This is done so that when the cut is finished about one-half to three-quarters above the bud, the bark and a small piece of top wood can be cut off as well. Perpendicular cuts across the top and upward cuts will separate the pieces from the parent.

The knife used for this process must be kept very sharp. The goal is to minimize as little damage as possible to the buds to be taken. The reason is, a dull knife will peel and tear the wood, leaving a wound that will not heal properly.

Shoots must be cut from the buds just before the grafting process. Otherwise, it will dry out. In fact, some people who graft plants even put the freshly cut shoots in their mouths before attaching them to the new mother. However, this practice is not recommended, Sinaumed’s!

3. Cut from the bottom to the middle of the bud

Some grafters cut from the bottom to the middle of the bud, then proceed to make a downward cut from the top of the bud as a second cut to completely cut it off. As long as you don’t remove too much wood from the buds, this method will work fine.

4. Cut the Root Stems Vertically

This cut must be deep enough to ensure that the bark separates at the cambium.

5. Perform Grafting

Furthermore, grafting was carried out. That is, a “T”-shaped cut is made on the parent (a vertical cut complete with a perpendicular cut above it).

In areas with high rainfall, during the grafting season, or in plant species where the rootstock tends to secrete a lot of juice, the “T” cut is generally made upside down to prevent water or sap from pooling in the graft.

6. Slip the cut shoots on the rootstock

Carefully, cut shoots tucked into the rootstock exposing the “pouch”. That is, the sides of the “T” cut are loosened up to create pockets. Extra care must be taken at this stage not to tear the bark folds in the process.

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In this stage, we will find out whether the bark is easy to loosen or not. If not, it means that the plant is not in active growth and the grafting process must be postponed at a later date and should be done when active growth has resumed.

There is an alternative method of incorporating the plant that does not require “slipping” of the bark, namely the chip budding technique or the bud being cut with bits of the wood beneath. This requires a suitable size cut from the bud to align the cambium and complete proper grafting.

7. Insert the Cuts Between the Bark Coverings

Cuts of shoots are carefully tucked between the bark coverings. Cut the top strip of skin on the bud cut to fit over the horizontal cut on the stem, resulting in a strip that fits inside the pitcher.

8. Bark Cover

Cover the bark with rubber, tape, or some other suitable covering so that it adheres tightly to the cut shoots. Ultimately, the cap must be of a nature that will be damaged by weathering, or it must be removed within 2 to 3 weeks of successful joining. If the covering material is not damaged, it will bind to the rootstock.

After successful grafting, the top of the plant and the rootstock can be cut off to allow the shoots to grow.

Examples of Plants that Can Apply Grafting

Here are some examples of plants that can apply grafting in their breeding. Let’s see together, Sinaumed’s:

  1. Star fruit
  2. Mango
  3. Avocado
  4. rambutans
  5. Longan
  6. Durian
  7. Guava
  8. Water apple
  9. Orange
  10. Soursop
  11. Pawpaw

Other Techniques

Apart from grafting, there are various other plant vegetative propagation techniques, especially those used in Indonesia. Of course, this cannot be separated from the quality that will be produced by prospective seeds that are the same as their parents.

The most common plant propagation techniques include cuttings, grafts, and grafts. The following is an explanation of the various techniques.

1. Cuttings Technique

Cuttings is one of the propagation techniques by planting or growing one part of the plant, such as roots, stems and leaves. Generally, cuttings are chosen by farmers because the materials needed to make them are very small and the results can be obtained in large quantities.

The results of cutting techniques generally have similarities in terms of age, height, and resistance to disease with their parents. Not only that, we can get perfect plants in a relatively short time, Sinaumed’s.

Cuttings are divided into root cuttings (banyan trees), stems (kale plant, cassava, and brotowali), and leaves (cocor duck plants).

Here are the advantages of the cuttings technique:

  1. Continuous propagation
  2. Not affected by time or season constraints
  3. The new individual is the same as the parent
  4. New individuals have the same age as the parent so they bear fruit quickly

2. Graft Technique

The propagation technique in the form of grafts is to grow roots before the stems are cut and planted. This technique is used to reduce the failure of plant propagation. Grafting can be an option to get new plants with the same characteristics as the parent, such as immunity to disease, flower beauty, and fruit taste.

This can happen because the results of the graft are almost 100 percent similar to the parent. If the results are different, it could be due to a gene mutation. This technique can be applied to woody plants, such as mangoes, several types of oranges, various types of guavas, pomegranates, and star fruit. Interested in trying the cuttings technique?

Benefits of grafting:

  1. The nature of the result is exactly the parent
  2. Propagation time is relatively short, ranging from 1-3 months
  3. Plants can produce fruit in a short time (about 4 years)

3. Connecting / Grafting Techniques

The grafting or grafting technique is carried out by combining the rootstock and scion of two similar plants. This will achieve compounding, that is, when the combination will continue to grow to form new plants. Unlike grafting which uses buds, this technique uses the entire shoot of about 7.5-10 centimeters.

This grafting or grafting technique can be applied to several varieties, such as mango, guava, apple, and others.

Here are the advantages of grafting :

  1. Accelerates fruiting plants
  2. The plant is strong because the rootstock is resistant to unfavorable soil conditions
  3. The nature of the clone will be eternal which cannot be done with other techniques
  4. Improving the plants that have grown, so that unwanted types change as desired.

Conclusion

In addition to knowing grafting as a technique for plant propagation or propagation, we also understand that there are other techniques such as cuttings, grafting, and grafting. It is interesting that there are reproduction techniques that are regulated by humans and can produce new plants with certain beneficial traits. What cool knowledge, Sinaumed’s!

Anatomical Morphology and Plant Systematics

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