Getting to Know Customers: Definition, Types, Characteristics, & How to Deal with

Customer is – Sinaumed’s, if you know the word customer, you will definitely not be separated from business matters. The word customer is a word that comes from English and has a meaning, namely customer. In running a business, of course, it is necessary to have a buyer who will buy the goods or services provided by the producer company.

Generally, everyone who owns a business knows how to manage and retain their customers. For companies that sell products, to be able to find out customer complaints or satisfaction, usually companies or shops have customer service. In this article, we will discuss more deeply what a customer is.

Understanding Customers

The customer has several meanings both in general and according to experts, the general understanding of the customer is an individual or household, a company that buys goods or services produced by producers in economic transactions. Specifically, a consumer is someone who is used to buying goods at a particular store.

In Indonesian, customer means customer. In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), customers are people who buy (use and so on) goods (newspapers and so on) on a regular basis.

Understanding Customer According to Experts

Some experts also express the understanding of the customer, among others.

1. According to Jerald Greenberg

Individuals or groups who shop for products in the form of goods or services by considering various factors, such as quality, place, price, service, etc. based on their own decisions.

2. According to Vincent Gaspersz

It’s all the people who demand that you meet a certain standard of quality and they will have an effect on your performance.

3. According to Philip Kotler

Individuals or households that shop for or obtain goods or services for their own consumption.

If consumers are satisfied with a product or service from a company, then they will be more loyal to that company in the future and can influence the impact of recommendations from one customer to another.

Customer Types

Consumers are generally divided into several types, including:

1. Internal Customers

This type is a consumer who comes from the inner scope of the company. Usually, they buy a product or service which will later be resold to other people.

In addition, this type has a share or influence on company performance. Such as marketing employees, operational employees, delivery employees, HRD (human resource management) and others. In order to maximize its performance, internal customers need good collaboration and teamwork, so they can get a large number of end customers.

2. External Customers

External types are customers who actively and directly use the products or services of the manufacturing company. This can also be called the end consumer, such as business owners, students, or housewives.

Usually, they (customers) exist because the company has good performance, quality, or quality of goods or services, so that consumers can directly feel satisfaction with a product or service. By providing the best quality goods or services to customers, commitment from customers will also be higher.

3. The first customer

This type of customer is a consumer who acts as an intermediary for selling products. However, these consumers are not the final users of a product or service from a company.

The first customer difference is that it does not come from the scope of the company, but rather is a general individual or group that distributes products or services from a company. Such as resellers of beauty products, tour booking service bureaus, food raw material agents, and the like.



Customer characteristics and how to deal with them

1. Cheap Customers

This characteristic can be said to be a consumer who prefers products at low and affordable prices, and prefers discounts. Usually, because there are factors such as savings that encourage them in choosing a product or service.

Consumers like this will ask about certain promotions, bonuses or discounts when shopping. The best way of marketing is to provide promotions as attractive as possible. That way, consumers will be more interested in trying the products you offer.

See also  The Science Behind How Motivational Speeches Can Fuel Success

2. Difficult Customers

Then, the characteristics of difficult customers generally often perceive negatively and will compare products or services. This is caused by several factors that can cause this to happen, the most common factor being an unpleasant shopping experience.

In dealing with consumers like this, the thing that companies can do is be patient with them. Also, don’t start an argument and try to use polite language when communicating. Companies should not focus too much on this type of customer, because it will waste time without making a sale.

3. Sophisticated Customers

This type is a consumer who has high knowledge of a product or service before he decides to buy it. When a company handles this type of consumer, you should have good product knowledge.

This is because they usually have done research and have many references to the product or service that you offer.

The advantage of this type of customer is that after you have succeeded in impressing them, they will usually become loyal customers and be able to recommend your product to others. So, you must have more detailed product knowledge when dealing with consumers like this.

4. Affluent Customers

This type is a consumer who does not pay much attention to product prices. These consumers are the most important factor to consider a business asset in your marketing efforts.

They are customers who are always loyal to a product. However, they tend to guide the best in terms of both service and quality. So, it is important for companies to pay attention to individuals to attract them in order to encourage repeat purchases.

5. Grumpy Customers

This characteristic is a consumer who has a high temperament and irregular emotions. The way to deal with him is to be calm, patient and able to listen to everything he says carefully. You also have to understand what caused the anger and be able to explain this to consumers in the most friendly way.

6. Silent customer

This type is a customer who doesn’t talk much and tends to only look at goods or products. The way to deal with consumers like this is that you need to try to get their attention, such as starting the conversation first and trying to get along with them. If you talk to him first, it will make him feel more comfortable and you can ask him what he needs.

7. Impatient Customers

As the name suggests, these consumers are customers who always prioritize speed and accuracy of service. Consumers like this are often impatient in asking for a lot of products in a short period of time. If you find consumers like this, then you only need to have great patience and alertness so you don’t disappoint these customers.

Distribution of Customer Loyalty

According to Jill Griffin, customer loyalty is divided into 4 parts based on repeat, high and low purchase patterns. Here are 4 types of customer loyalty.

1. No Loyalty

There are some consumers who do not develop loyalty or loyalty when buying products. Without product loyalty it has a low association with repeat purchase rates. Basically, this group is included in the company’s target market in general. However, they do not become consumers and use products or services.

2. Weak Loyalty (Inertia Loyalty)

This consumer loyalty is low attachment and high repurchase. This is usually caused by consumer buying habits. The reasons consumers buy products or services are usually based on situational factors.

For example, consumers buy gasoline because the gas station is close to where they work. Consumers will choose the nearest gas station, which is near their place of work, even though there are several gas stations that are far away.

The company considers the possibility of weak consumer loyalty. This type of customer loyalty leads to positive things. In addition, consumers can experience an increase in high loyalty because of the products and services offered by these companies.

3. Hidden Loyalty (Latent Loyalty)

This type of customer loyalty is said to be relatively high, but the rate of repurchase is included in a low number. Consumers will repurchase based on their situation and attitude.

For example, in a couple of lovers where the woman likes shrimp while the partner, namely the boy, doesn’t like shrimp. Finally, the woman is occasionally invited to go to a place to eat that has shrimp or it could also be that the couple then chooses to find another restaurant that they can enjoy together.

4. Premium Loyalty

Premium loyalty is the highest level. Customers will buy products to make purchases continuously. Companies expect consumers to be loyal to use their products continuously.

Examples of consumers with high loyalty are consumers who are proud to have used a product or service, so they buy the product and even give recommendations to those closest to them. An example we can take is when a woman buys a skincare product and feels comfortable with the skincare product because it can solve her facial skin problems, she will recommend her friends to buy the product.

See also  4 Principles of Waste Treatment and Types of Waste



Customer Service

Sinaumed’s, with these many consumer characteristics. It would be better if the company had a place to accommodate all complaints or messages and criticism from consumers. Usually we call it Customer Service.

In Indonesian, Customer Service can also be referred to as customer service. Understanding Customer Service is a service provided by the company to answer questions and problems from consumers. In carrying out its work, customer service works by establishing interactive communication with consumers.

Communication can be done in various technical ways, such as face-to-face, telephone, email, chat to social media. Through this interaction, Customer Service will provide answers and understanding or guidance to customers to solve problems regarding problems with product use.

Customer Service function

1. Public Relations

Its main role is as a liaison between the company and its customers or other external parties.

2. Sales Means

Not only answering consumer complaints and questions, customer service must also be able to take advantage of the moment to do cross selling .

3. Maintain Customer Trust

As a person who interacts directly with customers, customer service must be able to maintain consumer trust and not leave a bad impression.

4. Collect Customer Data

The role of this customer service is to enter customer data into the business system. Usually, when placing an order, the customer service will enter information directly into the system.

Skills that Customer Service Must Have

1. Set the customer’s Language and tone

If you get an angry customer, a customer service person should respond calmly and not sound frustrated. If you reply in a calm tone, then it will also rub off on your consumers

2. Active listening

When customers are in a state of frustration, what they need is not a solution, so they stop providing solutions but resolutions.

3. Time management

As a customer, of course you don’t want to wait long to get answers to the questions you ask, do you? therefore a Customer Service must be able to have time management to solve problems.

4. Product knowledge

A customer service person is a person who directly deals with the company’s consumers, therefore it is necessary to know all the product knowledge that the company sells.

5. Multitasking

A customer service is expected to handle more than one chat at a time, this is to achieve efficiency. but don’t take too many calls because it will make consumers wait too long.

The difference between Customer, Consumer and Client

Maybe according to Sinaumed’s, these three words have the same meaning, namely as a party that buys the services or products offered by the seller. Even though they have the same meaning, the three have differences. Check out the explanation below.


As previously explained, a customer is someone who buys or uses goods on a regular basis. that is why the relationship between customer and business cannot be severed and is very close in nature. Customers are also considered as a source of strength for a business, giving rise to the term buyer is king. That means, the relationship between the seller and the customer may last for a while, but the customer still has the right to obtain high-quality products or services according to the price paid.


Consumers are people who are included in the category of end users of a product or service. What’s the difference with the customer? A consumer is not necessarily a customer, but a customer may become a consumer at the same time. Is Sinaumed’s confused? Check out the example below

You sell special food for pets such as dogs or cats and those who buy these products can’t be the dogs and cats, right? Therefore, the product that you will sell will be purchased by humans who raise dogs or cats.

After that, the product will be consumed by the dog or cat. So in this case, it can be concluded that pet owners are customers and pets are consumers.


Clients are people who use the services of an organization or professional person. Same with consumers and customers, clients are also individuals who use services or products sold by sellers. However, clients are usually more likely to use services than products.

This is what makes the client synonymous with someone who likes to ask for advice or assistance from a service provider company they trust. This is because a client is someone who uses certain services and in practice he wants to get maximum results.

These three things are important for you to know, Sinaumed’s, so that you can clearly understand the marketing strategy for the product or service that you will use.


Well, Sinaumed’s, that’s a complete explanation about the customer, up to the difference between the consumer and the client. Do you understand more about the customer? If Sinaumed’s wants to find out more about customers and books about customers, then you can get them at so you have #MoreWithReading information.