Inventor of algebra – Who doesn’t know mathematics? It seems that everyone will know about mathematics because this subject is always synonymous with numbers and calculations (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). Therefore, in studying mathematics, various kinds of formulas will definitely be presented. In fact, one type of material in mathematics can have more than one formula.

The many formulas in mathematics make some people, especially students, find it difficult and complicated to understand math problems, so they have difficulty doing mathematics. In fact, for some students there are those who think that math is a scary thing, so they don’t like math.

Whereas in human life, almost all developments that occur in science and technology use mathematical formulas, such as in the field of astronomy, in the field of architecture, in the field of technology, and so on. In other words, without the science of mathematics, it is very likely that until now there have been no important discoveries in human life.

Talking about the sciences in mathematics is indeed very much. One of the many mathematics that has an influence on human life is algebra. Some people may already know or understand algebra, a math science that has been around for a long time.

According to some historical records, there were two inventors of algebra, namely Diophantus and Al-Khwarizmi. Below we will explain more about the inventor of algebra along with how to calculate algebra. So, read this article to the end, Sinaumed’s.

**Understanding Algebra**

Algebra is a form of mathematics that discusses a simplification and problem solving by using substitute symbols, namely constants and variables. Therefore, algebra can be said that one of the branches of mathematics in which there is number theory, geometry, formulas, so that algebraic theory can be used to carry out several studies. Algebraic is a mathematician who does research on algebra.

We can see algebra that can be used to solve problems in everyday life in a trader who wants to find out the profit of the goods he is going to sell. Apart from that, algebra can also be used by parents to give their children pocket money for school. We should study the benefits of algebra that can be applied in everyday life so that when we want to trade, we can calculate maximum profit.

The word “algebra” comes from Arabic, namely ” *al-jabr* ” with the meaning of meeting, settlement, or completion. The development of science in Europe which was more advanced at that time made the word *“al-jabr* “, then absorbed into the European language, namely algebra. The word has become a general term and is widely known by many people and scientists.

Meanwhile, in the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), algebra is a branch of mathematics that uses letter signs to describe or represent numbers (a, b, c, as a substitute for known numbers and x, y, z for unknown number). In short, algebra is arithmetic that has many benefits in life and can make it easier for humans to solve various kinds of problems.

Usually a branch of mathematics, namely algebra, has begun to be taught to junior high school students (SMP) or more precisely when a grade 7 student. Algebra is taught to grade 7 students, usually in the form of simple algebraic forms, such as algebraic addition, algebraic subtraction. , algebraic multiplication, and algebraic division. By learning this simple algebra, grade 7 students are expected to be able to apply it in everyday life, so that calculating things becomes easier.

**Algebra Inventor**

**1. Diophantus**

Based on other historical records, some say that the inventor of the branch of mathematics, algebra, was Diophantus, he came from Alexandria. Apart from that, algebra is also believed to have existed and been developed since the days of Ancient Babylon. At that time, the Babylonians had already developed quadratic equations, linear equations, and indefinite linear equations.

Diophantus wrote a book called *Arithmetica* , the book contains algebraic solutions, resulting in the modern number theory known as the Diophantine equation or infinity. Can be known as Diophantine because some equations already have more than one possible answer. Diophantus, who wrote the book *Arithmetica* , is thought to have been born between 200 and 215 AD. In addition, the first book written by Diophantus consists of solving more than 100 problems that produce first-order equations.

In fact, he is also called the “Father of Algebra” because he has provided knowledge about number theory, mathematical notation, and algebra which can be identified through the theory of equations. The algebraic system created by Diophantus does not use symbols and is known as the *syncopalet.*

During his lifetime, Diophantus had written more than 10 manuscripts, or to be more precise, written 13 manuscripts. However, of the 13 nasihs, only 6 have been manuscripts and 6 of these manuscripts have been preserved from damage, so that the information in them can be studied.

**2. Al-Khwarizmi**

The branch of science from mathematics, namely algebra, was discovered or created by Al-Khwarizmi who was born around 780 AD. He is someone who really likes mathematics, so he is very diligent in studying mathematics. He has a full name, Muhammad Ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi and was born in Bukhara and has lived in Khawarizmi for a long time. Al-Khwarizmi’s birthplace and residence today is known as Khiva or part of the country of Uzbekistan.

During his lifetime, Al-Khwarizmi had a profession as a teaching staff or as a lecturer at the School of Honor in Baghdad. Algebra science which Al-Khwarizmi also came from the book he first wrote and that book entitled *al-jabr* . His first book contains systematic solutions from linear and quadratic notation.

Al-Khwarizmi lived during the leadership of Al-Ma’mun and it was at that time that the development of science was at its peak or at the peak of its glory. Therefore, at that time, there were many researchers who conducted research, including Al-Khwarizmi, who discovered algebra. The development of science is marked by the existence of a large library and scientific research center created by Harun Al-Rashid. In that place, there are lots of translated books in which there is also Al-Khwarizmi’s book.

The ability possessed by Al-Khwarizmi in making algebra is not without reason, he often reads books, so he has the expertise to master several languages. Thus, Al-Khwarizmi was very happy in the world of research, especially those related to mathematics.

His love for mathematics made Al-Khwarizmi create many works, such as *Al-Kitab Al Mukhtasar Fi Hisab Aljabr W’al-MuqabalaI* which discusses the basics of algebra. This work became the starting point for the science of algebra to be known by Europeans and is still known and used today. Thanks to his book and knowledge of algebra, Al-Khwarizmi is often known as the “Father of Algebra”.

Apart from that, Al-Khwarizmi also made several works related to mathematics which were written in the book *Al-Kitab Al-Jam’a Wal-Tafriq Bi-Hisab Al-Hind* . This book contains calculations and sums based on the Hindu calculation system and this book is also known as *Dixit Algirizmi* . Thanks to this book which has been translated into Latin, Al-Khwarizmi is known by many people in Europe under the name Algorizm.

Today, Algorizm is known as the concept of an algorithm. The concept of algorithms has been used in various types of science, such as things related to computers and the field of *engineering* .

Muhammad Ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi died in 266 Hijri or in 850 AD. Even though he has passed away, thanks to his works and the branch of mathematics he created, it is easier for us to find solutions to problems, especially those related to mathematics.

Those are the two mathematicians who are credited with discovering algebra for the first time. However, it turns out that the “Father of Algebra” is still being debated by many experts, some believe that algebra was created by Diophantus and there are also those who believe that algebra was created by Muhammad Ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi.

In their book entitled *The Development of Arabic Mathematics* , two scientists named R Rashed and Angela Armstrong say that the algebra created by Al-Khwarizmi has differences when compared to the algebra from Diophantus. According to them both, Al-Khwarizmi’s algebra has a basic form that is easier to apply or use in everyday life. Meanwhile, Diophantus’s algebra is considered to be used as a tool in calculating number theory.

In other words, it can be said that the science of algebra created by the two inventors has differences, especially in terms of its application. Although it is still debated who the founder of algebra is and who is the real “Father of Algebra”, many scientists believe that the first algebra applied to the discipline of mathematics was the algebra of Muhammad Ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi or known as algebra Al-Khawarizmi.

**Elements of Algebraic Algebra **

The algebraic elements that are often used in scientific disciplines have several elements, including:

**1. Equation Formula**

Equation formulas can be said to be one of the techniques in mathematics which is usually used to equate a problem into the simplest and most complex mathematical forms. In other words, this equation serves to form a mathematical formula according to the problem.

For example, it is known that the number of dolls owned by Putri and Fitri is 15. If Putri has 5 dolls, how many dolls does Fitri have?

The above questions will be easily solved, if you use algebra. First change the variables to x for Putri and y for Fitri.

x + y = 15

x = 5

After changing the variables, we can only count how many dolls Fitri has:

x + y = 15

5 + y = 15

y = 15-5

y = 10

So, the number of dolls owned by Fitri is 10 dolls.

**2. Variables**

A variable is a symbol which is usually a letter which functions as a substitute for a value that is not fixed or can change. This variable property depends on the equation that contains it. Therefore, variables are also referred to as variables. Symbols are letters in variables, such as a, A, b, B, c, C, and so on. However, usually the symbols used are the letters x, X, y, Y, z, Z.

5x + 7y – z = 0

In the example above there are 3 variables where the variables are letters, x, y, and z.

**3. Coefficient **

If a variable is a symbol of a value, then the coefficient is different, which means the value used to multiply a variable. In general, coefficients that only have a value of 1 will not be written down. The following is an example of a coefficient, namely:

8x + 4y + z = 0

The example of the equation above can be said that the coefficient of x is 8, the coefficient of y is 4, and z is 1.

**4. Constants**

A constant is a value that exists in an algebraic form that has an invariable or fixed nature. Usually, the characteristic of a constant is that it is not related to a variable. In some formulas, constants can be symbolized using letters (a, b, c, and so on) or can use special symbols, such as (π). For more details, see the example below

5x + 7 = 10

K = x2r

From the two examples of equations above, we can see that the constants in the first equation are 7 and 10. Meanwhile in the second equation, the constants are

**5. Power (Exponent)**

A rank or exponent is a variable that exists in an algebraic form in the form of a rank. In the exponential calculation operation there is a second priority that is parallel to the arithmetic operation after the brackets in the mathematical arithmetic operation.

x = 5y2

If the value of y is 6, then the value of x can be found, namely “

x = 5y2

x = 5 . 62

x = 5 . 36

x = 180

**6. Degrees**

In algebra, degree is a value of the highest rank that already exists in the algebraic form variable, here is an example of algebraic degree:

**7. Tribe**

In algebraic form, term is a total of all elements that already exist in algebraic form. This term is usually used as a way to make algebraic expressions easier to say.

**Algebraic Forms**

In its application, algebra has several forms, each algebraic form must consist of fixed values (constant) and variable values (variables). Algebraic forms can be used in addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and powers. Here are some examples of algebraic forms.

1. 3b

2. 4x + 3

3. 6y – 2

4. 4a2 + 3a – 6

5. 1/x + 1/y

**How to Calculate Algebraic Addition and Subtraction**

In algebra, addition and subtraction can only be done based on the same or similar terms.

An example of algebraic addition:

4x + 6y + 3y + 2x

= 4x + 2x + 3y + 6y

= (4x + 2x) + (3y + 6y)

= 6x + 9y

An example of algebraic subtraction:

5x – 3x – 4y

= 2x – 4y

**How to Calculate Algebraic Multiplication**

In algebraic multiplication, each constant can be done by multiplying the coefficients of each variable.

4xy x 5 = 20xy

Meanwhile there is also an algebraic multiplication in which the variables are multiplied as a whole, be they coefficients or variables.

5yz xz = 5yz2

**How to Calculate Algebraic Division**

This division in algebra makes it easier to calculate, it must be converted into a fraction

Example of dividing a variable by a constant:

Example of dividing variables by variables:

An example of dividing a variable by a more complex variable:

Source: From various sources