Examples of Non-Military Threats – In an effort to defend the Indonesian state and its contents which include the population and natural resources, it is actually the duty of all citizens. Even though a country looks fine, there are no disputes that cause the parties to take up arms, but that does not mean that the country is not under threat.
This is because threats directed against a country do not only have to use weapons, but there are also threats that can intimidate the sovereignty, integrity and safety of the entire nation. Threats that do not use weapons are often referred to as non-military threats.
In general, these non-military threats originate from internal parties within the country and operate in an organized manner. The manifestation of this non-military threat is very diverse, ranging from robbery, smuggling and drug trafficking, illegal immigrants, to theft of natural resources and historical artifacts.
Then, what are some examples of this non-military threat? Can non-military threats later develop into military threats which can endanger state sovereignty? In what areas do these non-military threats usually occur?
So, so that Sinaumed’s isn’t confused, let’s look at the following review!
Examples of Non-Military Threats in Indonesia
Non-military threats that occur in a country are threats that do not use weapons. Usually, this threat uses non-military factors that are abstract in nature, but can endanger the sovereignty of the state, the identity of the nation, the territorial integrity of the state and the safety of the entire nation.
So, here are some examples of non-military threats that occur in Indonesia in several areas of life:
Non-military threats can also occur in the socio-cultural field, because they are directly related to social life. Usually, these threats are driven by several social issues, ranging from poverty, ignorance, injustice in society, to the backwardness of society. So, here are examples of non-military threats that occur in the socio-cultural field:
- The emergence of a westernized lifestyle
That is, people’s lifestyles are more inclined to western culture without any prior selection process. Western culture that is applied in this westernized lifestyle is usually contrary to the values and norms that have been rooted in the Indonesian nation. For example imitating the minimal style of western clothing.
- The emergence of a consumptive lifestyle
Namely the lifestyle of people who always buy goods in excess, even though these goods are not necessarily going to be used. This consumptive lifestyle can also lead to waste.
- The emergence of hedonism
The nature of hedonism is almost the same as a consumptive lifestyle. The difference is that this hedonism is in the form of extravagance with things that violate norms, such as promiscuity, spree, to drunkenness.
- Individualism emerges
- The fading spirit of mutual cooperation, solidarity, and concern for other individuals
- The fading of religious values in social life.
- Juvenile delinquency
- Public infrastructure is inadequate, especially in remote areas.
Technology and Information Field
The advancement of science and technology at the present time, of course, has both positive and negative impacts. If left unchecked, the negative impact of scientific and technological advances can of course develop into non-military threats in the form of cyber crimes and banking crimes.
The non-military threats that have occurred in the health sector can be seen directly, especially in the last two years, namely the occurrence of a pandemic or a large-scale viral outbreak in the form of Covid-19. This non-military threat does not only occur in Indonesia, but also throughout the world community.
Yep, the emergence of global disease outbreaks can of course be a non-military threat that intimidates state sovereignty and its citizens.
The political sector, of course, will not escape the emergence of non-military threats, which have even broader sources, namely from outside and within the country. Non-military threats in the political field originating from within the country, for example:
- Coup action, namely an attempt to overthrow a government regime
- Civil War
- Provocation against several community groups
- Political blockade
- Separatism, the movement to break away from a region. For example, the region of East Timor.
- There was a clash of community groups
Meanwhile, non-military threats in the political field come from abroad, for example: international terrorism and attempts by other countries to interfere too much in domestic political affairs.
In Indonesia, there has not been and should not be any non-military threats in this ideological field. However, Sinaumed’s can see the example of the Soviet Union which underwent an ideological change from communist to liberal. This ideological change could also become a non-military threat which in fact caused the collapse of the Soviet Union.
The non-military threats that occur in the economic field are closely related to the socio-cultural field, because social life cannot be separated from economic activities. In this economic field, non-military threats can also come from within and outside the country. Examples of non-military threats that occur in the economic field are:
- The Indonesian economy began to be controlled by foreigners, whose profits were not shared equally.
- Free trade that is vulnerable to smuggling of prohibited goods.
- Unemployment, later can affect the crime rate.
- There is inflation, namely a general increase in prices that causes a change in the market mechanism.
- The economic system is less clear.
- Dependence on foreign parties, both in terms of trade and economic system.
- The use of goods is dominated by foreign products.
- Free investment.
- Increasing unemployment, poverty, and social inequality.
Public Safety Sector
Unknowingly, the increasing number of factories that dispose of waste carelessly can actually become a non-military threat to public safety. Yep, this non-military threat is caused by humans themselves, starting from the disposal of industrial waste containing chemicals to fires and transportation accidents.
Other non-military threats that occur in the field of public safety, but cannot be prevented are natural disasters, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. While natural disasters in the form of floods and forest fires can usually be prevented and anticipated in advance by humans, it’s just that most of them neglect to protect nature.
The Real Strategy in Defending Indonesia from Non-Military Threats
Based on the Indonesian Defense White Paper in 2015, it revealed that there are three types of threats in a country, namely military threats, non-military threats, and hybrid threats. At this time, the Indonesian state was facing a non-military threat which actually intimidated the integrity of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia.
According to the Director of Strategic Policy at the Ministry of Defence, Brigadier General M. Nakir, expressed his opinion regarding non-military threats at the Coordination Meeting on Implementation of National Defense and Arrangement of Defense Areas in Aceh Province. He is of the opinion that non-military threats are sometimes even more dangerous, because they have a bigger impact and directly target society.
It should be understood that the existence of non-military threats that occur in Indonesia do not always have to be resisted by the TNI and police, but also all citizens. All citizens, including the smallest elements, must play a role in defending Indonesia’s sovereignty from these non-military threats, including those within the RT/RW.
Pecalang Strategy in Sukawati Bali Traditional Village
Pecalang is a designation for customary security whose job is to secure the course of customary activities in traditional village areas. Pecalang is usually carried out by residents who have a special assignment to look after and assist in organizing activities, both related to religious and customary ceremonies.
In Bali, the existence of this pecalang is of course very influential in efforts to secure its territory from non-military threats. We certainly already know that the Bali region has become the center of tourism for all tourists, both domestic and foreign. This of course makes Bali an easy target for several parties who wish to carry out this non-military threat, ranging from drugs, hoax news, hedonistic lifestyles, to human trafficking.
In fact, according to data for 2017, the number of drug addicts in Bali reached 61,353 people, which means around 2.01% of the total number of Balinese. The Bali Provincial National Narcotics Agency (BNNP) also emphasized that Bali is included in the drug emergency area.
Not only that, according to a report by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) showing that around 2014, around 6,651 people were involved in the practice of human trafficking (human trafficking) and this occurred in Indonesia. Indonesia ranks second in the practice of human trafficking and confirms that the government will close prostitution areas, including in Bali and Papua.
Starting from drug use to the practice of human trafficking, this is also included in non-military threats, you know… Therefore, the Balinese people agreed to revitalize pecalang to ward off this non-military threat. The main task of the pecalang, which was originally to look after traditional and religious activities, began to increase by assisting the police and military.
Challenges and Threats Pecalang Must Face
Currently, pecalang is not yet on the agenda of the state defense program because it focuses on the younger generation who are agents of change for the nation in the future. However, when linked to defense and security efforts, pecalang actually becomes a supporting component in the system’s defense system. In fact, to become a pecalang member, you must receive training and guidance from the Regional Military Command and the police.
Pecalang will act actively in matters related to culture, especially Balinese culture. Therefore, when carrying out this “security” program, pecalang encountered many threats from non-military to military threats. It is not uncommon for these pecalang to encounter threats in the form of terrorism and radicalism in Sukawati village. This is because Sukawati is a strategic location for such threats.
State Defense Education Strategy in Facing Non-Military Threats Covid-19
Previously, it was written that non-military threats in the health sector are when a pandemic occurs in the form of a disease outbreak or viral outbreak that attacks all citizens. This non-military threat is happening in all countries, including in Indonesia, namely the Covid-19 pandemic. The Covid-19 pandemic is a non-military threat because it is included as a disease outbreak that has never been predicted before.
In an effort to ward off non-military threats in the form of the Covid-19 pandemic, there is research which says that the implementation of state defense values can be a strategy in efforts to deal with these non-military threats. One of the national defense systems in dealing with non-military threats is the existence of a reserve component. In the non-military threat of the Covid-19 pandemic, the front line is medical personnel.
The reserve component comes from a variety of different educational and professional backgrounds, so there is a need for a common understanding to achieve the same goal in order to safeguard state sovereignty. One of them is through state defense material which can provide a new perspective on the basics of the importance of loving the motherland and the spirit of nationalism. Especially for the younger generation, without realizing it, the feeling of love for the motherland and the spirit of nationalism is gradually disappearing under the influence of globalization that is happening at this time.
The existence of this state defense education will be an important component in empowering citizens, especially the younger generation, in dealing with non-military threats, which cannot be handled physically using weapons.
The implementation of state defense education in the face of non-military threats in the form of the Covid-19 pandemic is that as good citizens, we must not allow this pandemic to continue. Therefore, we must report the addition of positive patient cases and carry out jogo tonggo , which is an effort to look after and care for neighbors who are undergoing independent isolation by providing food to them.
So, that’s a review of examples of non-military threats in various areas of Indonesian people’s lives as well as the real implementation of the strategies implemented by its citizens in terms of counteracting these non-military threats. Even though this non-military threat does not attack physically or armed, it actually attacks the community directly and affects activities in social life. For this reason, as the younger generation, always be aware of this non-military threat and sort out western culture that enters this country according to the customs and norms that have been in force.
Book Recommendations & Related Articles
Mandira, I Made Chandra, I Wayan Midhio, and Yusuf Ali. (2018). Challenges of Pecalang in Facing Non-Military Threats in Sukawati Traditional Village in Supporting the Universal Defense System. Defense Management, Vol 4(2).
Widorekno, Reni Apriliani, Rena Apriliana Widorekno, and Supriyadi. (2021). Implementation of State Defense Values in Facing Non-Military Threats (Covid-19). NUSANTARA: Journal of Social Sciences, Vol 8(4).
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