Examples of Negotiation Text and Their Structure

Example of Negotiation Text and Its Structure – Negotiation can be considered as a communication skill that is very necessary in everyday life. Skills in negotiating are not easy, so don’t underestimate these negotiation skills.

For some people, the negotiation process is common, especially for traders, be it fruit traders, vegetable traders, clothes traders, and others. When negotiating, it must be in accordance with a mutual agreement so that both are happy and both benefit. However, in some cases negotiation is also used by students who beg their teachers to be remedial.

Not everyone is brave and capable of negotiating for fear of misunderstandings, so fear of commotion. Therefore, so that the fear of negotiating disappears, we must often train ourselves in negotiating.

Definition of Negotiation

When you want to practice negotiation, you can start by getting to know what negotiation is. From this understanding, it will make it easier for you to get to know negotiations more deeply. The more you know about negotiations, the faster you will be good at negotiating. Even though, you know a lot about negotiation if you don’t put it into practice the result will be the same.

Although usually negotiations are carried out by both parties, in some cases negotiations are carried out by third parties. Third parties can be referred to as intermediary parties and usually third parties are known as mediator parties.

The interesting thing about a mediator is that he has skills in negotiating. In addition to good skills, he also has good business ethics.

According to Tommy Yuniawan in Skilled Rhetoric Speaking (2012) says that negotiation is an activity or process of communication between two parties.

According to the OJK (Financial Services Authority) negotiation is a bargain between parties to reach an agreement on quantity, price, quality, or requirements in accordance with the initial agreement.

Based on KBBI (Big Indonesian Dictionary), negotiation is a process of bargaining by negotiating to reach a mutual agreement between one party (group or organization) to another.

Based on the two definitions above, negotiation can be interpreted as a form of communication carried out by both parties with the intent and purpose of obtaining a mutually beneficial agreement.

Types of Negotiation

For some people, there is only one type of negotiation, that is, both benefit from an agreement. However, in reality negotiations have various types that need to be known. Here are the types of negotiations that need to be known.

1. Formal Negotiations

Formal negotiations are negotiations that can only be resolved in a formal way or in black and white. In this type of negotiation, to get a fair agreement, both parties must resolve it through legal channels. Usually formal negotiations are carried out by large companies that do not want to suffer losses when negotiating.

2. Informal Negotiations

In contrast to formal negotiations that must be resolved through legal means, informal negotiations can be completed anywhere, anytime, and with anyone. So, informal negotiations are negotiations that are carried out regardless of time, place, and person with the aim of getting an agreement.

3. Negotiations With Intermediaries

Negotiations with middle parties can be said to be negotiations carried out by negotiators with a total of two or more people, so that in order to get a fair and appropriate agreement a third party or mediator is needed.

A mediator must be neutral or impartial to one of the negotiators. The mediator’s duty is to make a fair final decision from negotiations that have been carried out by both or more parties. For example, negotiations that are resolved through legal channels.

4. Negotiations Without Intermediaries

Negotiations without an intermediate party are negotiations conducted by two or more parties to reach an agreement, but without the help of a third party. In other words, the agreement obtained from the negotiation is determined by the negotiating parties. You can see this type of negotiation when representatives of institutions or companies work with sponsors to get the right deal.

5. Collaborative Negotiations

Collaborative negotiations are agreements obtained thanks to which all parties can collaborate. In this case, the collaboration is in the form of all negotiating parties being able to express their opinions and wishes. Therefore, collaborative negotiations can be called win-win negotiations because all parties always get the best deal.

6. Domination Negotiations

Domination negotiations are negotiations where the results of the agreement are unequal or only in favor of one party, the other party only gets a loss. In short, domination negotiations only benefit one party.

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Therefore, only some parties want to negotiate this domination. Thus, dominance negotiations can be said to be win-lose negotiations .

7. Accommodation Negotiations

Negotiation of accommodation negotiations that can give the opponent more advantages and the party negotiating less or less profit than the opposing party or even suffer losses.

Therefore, accommodation negotiations are also known as lose-win negotiations . When conducting these negotiations, it is best if the negotiating party continues to try to keep making a profit because if it results in a loss, the negotiating party will find it difficult to replace the loss.

8. Negotiation Avoids Conflict

Just as the name suggests, this negotiation was carried out with the aim of not continuing the conflict or not creating a new conflict. Therefore, in order to obtain this negotiation, all parties will resolve it with a cool head.

This negotiation is commonly known as a lose-lose negotiation or can be interpreted as a negotiation that both yield to the common interest.

Negotiation Text Structure

In building a negotiating text, structures are really needed so that we don’t find it difficult to make a negotiating text. Below, we will explain the structures of negotiating text that you can learn, Sinaumed’s.

1. Orientation

Orientation can be our way of starting a conversation which can usually be started by greeting, saying hello, and so on. The beginning of a good conversation is a way for negotiations to get a good deal too.

2. Submission

After starting the conversation, the next step is submission. In this submission step we will submit a bid to negotiate. This submission is usually in the form of a desire to be agreed upon by both parties.

3. Offer

Bidding is an important part of the negotiation process because bargaining can determine whether the negotiation will be successful or not. What’s more, when making an offer there will be such a thing as a difference of opinion in the form of an offer from both parties.

4. Consent

After the bidding process is successful, it will proceed to the approval section. This agreement comes from an agreement obtained from a bargaining process between the two parties.

5. Cover

The end of the negotiation process is usually a thank you or a greeting.

Negotiation Text Examples

After discussing the definition of negotiation to the types of negotiation, now is the time to give examples of negotiating texts. Check out examples of negotiating text that you need to know.

1. Examples of Fruit Sale and Purchase Negotiations

Orientation

Seller: “Please fruit that is sweet and cheap.”

Buyer: “How much is it, bro.”

Submission 

Seller: “Cheap, ma’am, one kilo is only 15 thousand.”

Buyer: “Just 2 kilos 25 thousand, okay?”

Offer 

Seller: “Not yet, ma’am. If that’s the case, I haven’t made a profit yet.”

Buyer: “Wow, 15 thousand a kilo is too expensive, bro.”

Seller: “It can be less, ma’am, but not too much, I’ll lose later.”

Buyer: “How about 13 thousand a kilo, is that okay or not?”

Seller: “Raise again, ma’am. If that’s the case, I’m lucky I’m tight, ma’am.”

Buyer: “This is the last offer, brother, 14 thousand a kilo, okay?”

Seller: “Maybe, ma’am, do the math for today’s sellers.”

Agreement 

Buyer: “So, maybe 14 thousand a kilo?”

Seller: “Okay, for my mother just give it cheap.”

Closing

Buyer: Thank you, sir. Here is the money.”

Seller: Thank you too, ma’am. Come by again tomorrow, ma’am.”

2. Examples of Negotiations in the Family Environment

Orientation

Child: “Are you and Dad busy or not?”

Mother: “Mom is also just relaxing.”

Father: “Just relaxing too, what’s wrong?”

Submission 

Child: “Look, sir, tomorrow I will have tutoring, if after tutoring I can go straight to play?”

Father: “Don’t you have any homework from school?”

Child: “Yes, sir, but it’s been done.”

Offer 

Father: “Where are you going? It is far?”

Child: “It’s close. Just playing at a friend’s house, sir.”

Mother: “Who do you play with?”

Child: “Princess, Dinda, and Vina, mom.”

Mother: “How about it, sir, can Dea play with her friends or not?”

Child: “How sir, you can play with your friends, right?”

Father: “Yes, you can play with your friends, but remember not to come home late.”

Child: “Okay, sir. Later Dea won’t be back until evening.”

Agreement 

Father: “Remember, you can play but not late at night.”

Mother: “If you play, don’t forget to eat.”

Child: “Okay, sir. Okay ma’am.”

Closing

Father: “Dea, are you not sleeping?”

Child: “Yes, sir, I’m going to go to bed right away. good night.”

Father: “Good evening.”

Mother: “Good night.”

3. Example of Negotiation of Assignment Collection

Orientation

Teacher: “Good morning, children

Students: “Good morning, sir.”

Teacher: “Have you all done your homework?”

Steven: “I haven’t done my homework yet?”

Submission 

Teacher: “Why haven’t you done your homework yet?”

Steven: “I forgot, sir, that there is an assignment today.”

Teacher: “Then what punishment do you want to be given?”

Steven: “No idea, sir.”

Offer 

Teacher: “What if you are punished to be sun-dried in the field?”

Steven: “No sir. I’ll be hot.”

Teacher: “That’s your fault for not doing your homework.”

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Steven: Yes, sir, but can the sentence be changed?”

Teacher: “Okay, how about you stand in front of the class during your subject?

Steven: “The time can’t be reduced, sir?”

Teacher: “No way!”

Agreement 

Steven: “Really can’t be less time, sir?”

Teacher: “No way!”

Steven: “Okay, sir. I will stand in front of the class during your subject.”

Closing

Teacher: “Next time, don’t forget to collect assignments.”

Steven: “Okay, sir. In the future I will collect assignments.”

4. Example of Money Loan Negotiation 

Orientation

Bank employee: “Good morning, ma’am.”

Customer: “Morning, ma’am”

Submission

Bank employee: “Can I help you?”

Customer: “I want to apply for a loan for business needs. Can it?”

Bank employee: “Yes, ma’am.”

 

Offer 

Bank employee: “In our bank there are two types of money lending.”

Customer: “Both are equally good, ma’am?”

Bank employee: “Yes, ma’am, both are good. For A, the money that can be borrowed is 5 million. While for B, the money that can be borrowed is 10 million.”

Customer: “If it’s A, what are the requirements needed?”

Bank employee: “Only motor vehicle BPKB, ma’am and the interest is 2.5%.”

Customer: “For guarantees, can it be other than the motor vehicle BPKB?

Bank employee: “Not yet, ma’am.”

Customer: “How many months is the installment period?”

Bank employee: “For the installment limit of 5 months.”

Customer: “Thank you for the information, ma’am. Maybe next time I can borrow money.”

Agreement 

Bank employee: “Are you absolutely sure?”

Customer: “I’m sure, ma’am.”

Closing

Bank employee: “Thank you for coming, ma’am. See you again.”

Customer: “Okay, ma’am. Once again I thank you.”

5. Example of Compensation Negotiation

Orientation

Andi: “You broke my cellphone?”

Agus: “Yeah, sorry, I accidentally dropped it when I borrowed it.”

Submission 

Andi: “LCD glass is like this, it must be expensive.”

Agus: “If it’s expensive, it means I can’t replace it.”

Offer 

Andi: “How are you doing? If I don’t replace it, I’m afraid my parents will scold me.”

Agus: “If I change it will take a long time because I have to save first.”

Andi: (calling parents)

Andi: “Earlier I called my parents, they said there was no need to replace it, it’s okay.”

Agreement 

Agus: “Thank God. Once again, I’m sorry.”

Andi: “Yeah, it’s okay.”

Closing

Agus: “Let’s play football together later in the afternoon.”

Andi: “Okay, come to me okay.”

6. Examples of Sales and Purchase Negotiations in Narrative Form 

Orientation

As usual, every morning, mother will definitely go to the market for daily shopping. The motor vehicle that is at home is always used to deliver it to the market. Mother already has a regular shop which she thinks is cheaper than other shops.

Long story short, mom’s regular shop was closing, so mom moved to the next shop. Mother started looking for ingredients to cook today and tomorrow. Mother was confused because she forgot to bring shopping notes. After recalling it, Mother wanted to buy a kilo of chicken, ingredients for vegetable soup, ingredients for chili sauce, and spices.

Mother greeted the seller by asking the prices of some vegetables to find out whether they were very expensive or not.

Submission 

Before buying these materials, mother asked the traders the price of these materials. Mother just found out that the price of chicken is a little more expensive than the shop she frequents. Without thinking twice, my mother immediately put forward a price according to her regular shop.

The seller responds with a relaxed answer, so this proposal is continued with a bargain typical of housewives and traders.

Offer 

Mom is well known when she bargains never loses. Mother began to bid back the price of the chicken, which was originally 35 thousand to 32 thousand. The traders rejected the mother’s offer and asked to raise prices.

Mother also refused because she thought the price of the chicken was too expensive. Seemingly not wanting to lose money, the trader again asked to raise the price of the chicken. Then, mother raised the price of the chicken to 33 thousand. The trader felt that he was still losing, so he offered a price of 34 thousand, but the mother considered that price.

In the end, my mother stopped buying chicken at the shop next to her customers and moved to another shop.

Agreement 

The negotiation process did not find common ground, so an agreement was not reached. Merchants are disappointed because they have to lose customers. Meanwhile, mother was tired because she had to move to another shop.

Closing

Then the mother did the right strategy by pretending to leave so that the merchant would call her back. But what power, it turns out the merchant did not call mother back.

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Conclusion

Negotiations can be said to be good when both parties have reached an agreement that is mutually beneficial or a win-win solution . However, in reality, there are types of negotiations that only benefit one party. Therefore, we must be good at determining what type of negotiation suits our needs.