# Examples of Calculation Problems and How to Read the Measuring Instruments!

Example of a vernier caliper problem – Hello friends of Sinaumed’s, are you still unfamiliar with the vernier caliper? You may already be familiar with rulers, clocks, and weight scales, which are measuring instruments, as well as vernier calipers that are used to measure the outside or inside diameter of an object. If you use a ruler to measure a flat surface, you can use a vernier caliper to measure the length of objects that are not just flat.

Humans definitely need a more detailed length measuring tool to measure the length of an object shape. This is what causes humans to need a caliper measuring instrument which has its own characteristics to measure an object. This measuring instrument in the study of physics has been introduced since attending Junior High School (SMP).

Caliper is a measuring instrument that has a very good or accurate level of precision and accuracy. Calipers can be used if an object cannot be measured using a ruler. In general, the function of the calipers is as a tool for measuring the outer and inner diameters of objects, measuring the length of objects that are small in size, and measuring the depth of objects.

Sinaumed’s doesn’t need to worry about difficulties using this measuring instrument. Watch this article to the end because it discusses caliper measuring devices. The following is an explanation of the meaning, function, types, parts, how to read, and examples of calculation questions using caliper.

## Definition of Caliper Gauge

Calipers are a measuring tool that can be used to determine the length, outside diameter, and inside diameter of a particular shape. Calipers can also be used to measure the depth of a hole or certain geometric shapes, such as a tube.

Sinaumed’s needs to know that vernier calipers are only intended to measure objects that are relatively small in size, although they can measure the diameter of the shape of objects. This is because the units are limited and usually objects that cannot be measured with a ruler.

Calipers have a higher level of accuracy compared to a ruler. The level of accuracy in question is the form of the smallest scale value that can be measured by a caliper that is more detailed or accurate. The smallest scale of the caliper is 0.01 cm or 0.1 mm, while the smallest scale of the ruler is 0.1 cm or 1 mm.

This is what shows the advantages of vernier calipers compared to a ruler for measuring the shape of objects that are not in a flat plane. Its detailed and accurate size makes the vernier caliper a measuring tool that workers in the engineering field rely on, moreover, it is relatively small and easy to carry around.

The vernier caliper was first discovered by a French mathematician who is also an engineer named Pierre Vernier who was born on August 19, 1584. He published the invention of this measuring instrument in 1631 which became an accurate measuring instrument, namely vernier calipers or by another name Vernier calipers . The vernier caliper measuring instrument scale is named after the name of its inventor, namely vernier.

## Caliper function

Calipers in practice have functions that really help humans to measure the length of an object. This measuring instrument was indeed created to answer unresolved problems, such as being able to measure the shape of objects other than flat surfaces like a length measuring instrument using a ruler. In fact, we also need measuring tools that are more precise and accurate.

The following are the functions or benefits of the caliper that Sinaumed’s needs to know.

• Serves to measure an object from the outside by means of being flanked.
• Serves to measure the side in the shape of an object which is usually a hole like a pipe by stretching it.
• Serves to measure the depth of a gap or hole in an object shape by plugging or piercing the measuring instrument.
• Used to measure the thickness of an object.
• Serves to measure the diameter in the form of objects using fixed jaws and upper sliding jaws.
• The function is to measure the depth of an object shape using the bottom measuring rod, for example the depth of a tube, a small hole, or a relatively small difference in height.
• It has two scales, namely the main scale and nonius.

## Types of Calipers

Based on the various functions that a vernier caliper has, this tool also has various types. So, Sinaumed’s can use several types of calipers as needed. The following are the types of caliper that Sinaumed’s needs to know so that they can be used as a reference if you want to use this measuring instrument.

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### 1. Analog or Manual calipers

This type of calipers is usually used for practicum in schools or school laboratories. How to use it is also quite difficult because it is only for practical purposes, which is still done manually, so it requires more accuracy when using it. Furthermore, to find out the measurement results, Sinaumed’s needs to calculate it first.

### 2. Digital shovel

This type of caliper has been developed from the previous type which was still analog or manual. Sinaumed’s may find it difficult to find digital calipers in schools or in school labs. This caliper has a screen that can display the value of the measured object size without having to calculate it manually first.

This digital caliper will greatly facilitate and speed up when measuring the shape of objects, for example in large quantities. However, in terms of price, digital calipers are more expensive than analog types.

### 3. Hours or Hours shove

The vernier caliper is a type of vernier caliper that can be read using an analog gauge needle attached to the face or using a stopper . This vernier caliper uses a measuring hour instead of a nonius scale when interpolating the index line to the measuring rod scale.

### 4. Altitude calipers

A height caliper is a type of slide rule that is used to measure height. This vernier caliper has measuring jaws that move vertically on a rod that scales perpendicular to the anvil. The measuring jaws of the vernier calipers are parallel to the reason that the measuring line is perpendicular to the ground surface. That is why the use of this caliper requires a flat reference surface, such as a flat table surface.

## Caliper Gauge Section

Sinaumed’s certainly needs to know the parts of the calipers and their functions in order to be able to use this measuring instrument. If Sinaumed’s understands the parts of a caliper, it will be easy to use it to measure the diameter or depth of certain shapes.

The following are the parts of the vernier caliper that Sinaumed’s needs to know in order to be able to use it.

### 1. Deep Jaws

The inner jaw consists of two jaws, namely sliding jaws and fixed jaws which function to measure the inside such as the diameter of the hole or gap of an object shape.

### 2. Outer Jaws

The outer jaw consists of two jaws, namely the sliding jaw and the fixed jaw which function to measure the outside, for example the diameter, width or length of certain shapes.

### 3. Stalk Depth Measure

The depth measuring rod serves to measure the depth of the hole of a particular object,

### 4. Main Scale

This section serves to state the main measurement results which are usually expressed in units of cm or inches, usually the main scale length is 15 to 17 sm.

### 5. Nonius Scale

This vernier caliper serves to add an extra level of measurement accuracy which is usually expressed in inches or mm.

### 6. Locking Bolt

The vernier caliper locking bolt serves to hold the jaws in place so that the object being measured can be held or not released and the scale does not shift while being measured.

## How to Use and Read a Caliper Gauge

After knowing the meaning, function, and types and parts of the caliper, Gremeds needs to know how to measure and read the results of this caliper measuring instrument. If Sinaumed’s succeeds in measuring the diameter or depth of an object, but cannot read or interpret the results, it will be useless.

Here’s how to read the measuring results on caliper.

1. Prepare the object or object to be measured in advance, such as marbles, coins or other objects.
2. After that, open the sliding jaw of the caliper to the left until it is really tight so you can produce an accurate measurement
3. Make sure again that both jaws are closed and the scale reads zero. Sinaumed’s needs to pay attention to this so that measurement errors do not occur or commonly referred to as zero errors.
4. Loosen the locking bolt and pull the sliding jaw to the right, until the object you want to measure can be placed between the two jaws.
5. Next, place the object between the two jaws and make sure that the position is correct and correct.
6. Pull the sliding jaw to the left until it clamps the object to be measured, then rotate the locking screw until you hear a click sound .
7. Note the squeezed line between the upper and lower scales or the nonius scale. Find the number that connects straight to the line from the nonius scale.
8. Calculate the measurement results obtained by adding up the two numbers, that is the diameter of the object that Sinaumed’s is looking for.

## The principle of how the shove term works

The main principle when using a vernier caliper is that if the key on the vernier caliper is loosened, the nonius scale board can move as needed when measuring the shape of a particular object. Next, to measure objects, clamp between the two clamps or jaws on the calipers as accurately as possible or in the right position.

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The results of the size of the object can be determined directly by reading the main scale to one-tenth of a cm or 0.1 cm. After that, add the results of the nonius scale reading to one thousandth of a cm or 0.001 cm. Calibration of the calipers is carried out by pushing the sliding jaw to touch the upper jaw.

The vernier caliper is said to have been calibrated perfectly if the sliding jaw is in the right position with zero, ie the zero on the main scale and the zero on the nonius scale completely coincide in one straight line. The calipers are ready to be used to measure objects. The working principle of vernier calipers in practice has advantages and disadvantages when used to measure certain objects.

Following are the advantages and disadvantages of vernier calipers that Sinaumed’s needs to know.

### 1. The advantages of the shove caliper

• Has a better reading accuracy, namely the reading accuracy ranges from 0.05–0.01 mm
• Can measure the outside diameter easily, i.e. the way it is sewn .
• Can measure the inner diameter easily, that is, by stretching it out.
• Can measure depth accurately.
• Cheap and affordable prices compared to other measuring instruments with the precision and accuracy of the results.

### 2. Disadvantages of shoves

• Cannot measure objects that are large in size.
• Expansion of measuring instrument material can occur if not treated.
• The shape of the sensor that is in direct contact with the workpiece will allow scratches or impacts to appear which can cause unevenness of the two sensors or the two jaws of the caliper.

If Sinaumed’s decides to buy a caliper because of the need for its use, you also need to pay attention to the maintenance of this measuring instrument. Calipers must be maintained so that they last longer, even though they are often used. The factor that usually causes equipment damage is the temperature instability of the storage room and the place where the caliper is stored.

Incorrect storage methods may allow the calipers to expand or contract, get bumped or scratched. So, store it in a place where the temperature is stable, for example a room or a special place using a storage box for certain measuring instruments so that it doesn’t get scratched or expands easily. When finished using clean the tool and put it back in place.

## Example of a probationary question

If Sinaumed’s already understands the caliper explanation above, it’s time to learn to solve this measuring instrument problem. Here are some examples of questions about measuring using calipers in physics lessons.

### Example of a probing term problem 1

What is the measurement result of the sample question above in centimeters?

Discussion:

• The main scale reading is 10 cm (the number 10 is obtained because it is directly opposite the zero on the right side of the vernier scale).
• The reading of the Vernier scale or nonius scale is 0.02 cm (obtained from the second line after zero on the Vernier scale, which is exactly straight with the line next to it).

So, the measurement results for the example question 1 above are 10 cm + 0.02 cm = 10.02 cm or 100.2 mm.

### Example of a push term problem 2

What is the result of the final calculation of the measurement of the sample image in question 2 above in millimeters?

Discussion:

• The main scale reading is 1.1 cm or 11 mm (found from a line after the 1 on the main scale that is directly opposite the zero on the vernier scale to the right).
• The reading of the vernier scale or nonius scale is 0.65 mm obtained from the vernier scale line which is exactly straight with the line above it, which is between 6 and 7.

So, the measurement results for the example question 2 above are 11 mm + 0.65 mm = 11.65 mm or 1.165 cm.

### Example of a push term problem 3

What is the result of the final calculation of the measurement of the sample question 3 above in centimeters?

Discussion:

• The blue circle shows 5, 3 cm , we will get this much in the red circle.
• The red circle shows 5 cm.
• So, the result is 5.35 cm.

That’s an article related to “How to Read and Examples of Questions for Measuring Calipers” that you can use as a reference for physics subjects. If there are suggestions, questions and criticisms, please write in the comments box below. Also share this article on social media accounts so that your friends can also get the same benefit.

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