Adjective Clause: Definition, Formulas & Practice Problems

Sinaumed’s, Adjective clause is usually used as a clause or clause which then functions as an adjective in a sentence. Get to know more closely about Adjective clauses starting from their meaning, formulas, examples, practice questions to the following answer keys:

Definition of Adjective Clause

Adjective clauses are also clauses that cannot stand alone or are also known as dependent clauses, their role is to modify pronouns and nouns in a complex sentence.

The characteristics of this sentence start with having a subject and predicate, and starting with a relative pronoun (who, which, whose, that whom) or relative adverb (when, why, where).

In addition, there are three important characteristics that an adjective clause has, including having a verb, starting with a relative verb or relative pronoun, as an adjective it also functions to answer various questions, starting from what, which, how much, and so on. The pattern of the adjective clause itself generally follows one of the following two patterns:

  • Pattern I – Relative pronoun or adverb formula + S + V. Example sentence “I lost my bag whom I borrowed from her”. In this sentence, Whom acts as a relative pronoun, while I functions as a subject and is borrowed as a verb.
  • Pattern 2 – Different from the previous pattern of adjective clauses with the relative pronoun formula as the subject + V. Examples of sentences include “The expired number that was signed last year is no longer valid”. In this sentence the relative pronoun functions as the subject, while the signed was functions as a verb.

In learning the pattern of adjective clauses in English it may sometimes be difficult, therefore it is important that there is a guide that provides a whole range of materials regarding English for beginners consisting of tenses, grammar and vocabulary which are important things in basic English which are available at book Mastering English Tenses, Grammar, Vocabulary, Self-taught Learning.

 

Adjective Clause formula

The adjective clause formula as a subject uses who, that and which. An example is the cotton candy, which was made of sugar. Its function is as an object by using the words whom, that, which and also who.

For example, in the sentence “that is a book, which I want to buy”. Other functions are in whose. Not many understand this function. An example is Afi, whose car has burned down. We can then break down the adjective clauses based on what they are then attached to the noun. There are several illustrations of the properties of nouns that can be described. Each illustration then has a different formula, including:

  • Noun + when you do something
  • Noun + where you then do something
  • Noun + why are you doing something
  • Noun + how you can do something
  • Noun + he who does something
  • Noun + what are you doing
  • Noun + to whom you do something

This noun is used to represent what is to be explained. So, you can categorize adjective clauses based on the name of the conjunction, as in the table, namely relative adverbs and relative pronouns.

Study various other tenses that form the basis of English in the book The Fastet English Grammar below to better understand how to use English sentences appropriately to describe situations.

Relative Pronouns

Relative pronoun as a conjunction adjective clause which functions to replace a missing subject, object, and object of preposition. Because the adjective clause then contains the relative pronoun who/which/that whom.

Relative Pronoun as Subject [RPS]

Relative Pronoun as Subject [RPS] is when the noun then has the character of doing something (verbal) or in the form of something (nominal), so you have to use the conjunction “who, which, that”. Relative Pronoun as Subject (RPS) must also be immediately followed by a verb, because of its role as a subject. Formula “. Relative Pronoun as Subject (RPS) as someone who does something is who/which/that + V + (O)

Example of sentences:

  • The girls who/that came to my house yesterday | Meaning: The woman who came to my house yesterday)
  • The dog which/that always steals fish | Meaning: A dog that always steals fish

Relative Pronoun as Object [RPO] 

Relative Pronoun as Object is a condition when a noun must then use the conjunction “whom, which, that”. Relative Pronouns as Objects are generally followed by a subject and then a transitive verb (need an object).

Why transitive? Because its function is as an object. So it needs to be underlined that sometimes transitive verbs then have only one object, although sometimes there are also two objects. The Relative Pronoun as Object formula itself includes whom/which/that + S + Vt + Object

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Examples of Relative Pronoun as Object Sentences:

  • The bag which/that you bought
  • The children whom/that my dad visit

In mastering existing formulas, Sinaumed’s must be able to master grammar first. Where grammar is one of the important components in English which is a support in speaking and writing in English. Learn Grammar through the Grammar Superflash book: Mastering Grammar with the Bimbel Method.

Relative Adverb

Relative Adverb as a conjunction adjective clause that appears after certain nouns. The similarity of all types of relative adverbs lies in the absence of missing components.

The relative adverb formula itself is relative adverb + S + V + (O) . It can be seen in the formula with the remaining subject. Even if the verb is transitive, then the object still appears.

Relative Adverb of Time : When

The word “when” is generally used when a relative adverb functions as an adjective for a noun in the form of time, for example: day, month, year, moment, hour, date, and others. Here’s an example:

  • The day when dad calls me : The day when dad calls me
  • The year when my brother was born : The year when my brother was born

Relative Adverb of Place: Where

The word where is used when the relative adverb functions as an attribute of the noun of place, for example in: house, building, office, market, place, room, and others. Here’s an example:

  • The building where Roni is hiding: The building where Roni is hiding
  • The market where bats are sold : The market where bats are sold

Relative Adverb of Reason : Why 

The word why is used when the relative adverb functions as an adjective of the noun of reason. Generally only found in one noun of reason itself. Synonyms include excuse, case, proof, idea, explanation. Consider the following examples:

  • The reason why Nada cried: The reason why Nada cried
  • The idea why coronavirus spreads quickly: The idea why the coronavirus spreads quickly

Relative Adverb of Manner : How 

The word how is used when the relative adverb functions as an adjective of the noun of manner. There is only one noun of manner, namely the way. Notice >

  • The way how I solve this problem
  • The way how she talks to me

Relative Possessive : Whose

Relative Possessive functions to replace possessive or ownership of my, your, their, our, his, her, its. More details as follows:

  • My neighbor will report to the police, meaning: My neighbor will report to the police
  • His car was lost
  • My neighbor whose car was lost will report to the police

The word whose in the sentence above replaces his which is possessive. Because his is basically an adjective, he must still be attached to a noun. Be whose bicycle.

Adjective Clause Problem Exercises

  1. This Girl is so bad, He reads a bad news
  2. The store is rented by my brother, The store is good
  3. The question is difficult, this question has been answered by Abdi
  4. The land is very expensive, I like it very much
  5. Raisa will visit Bali Islands, The most beautiful of this island is Kintamani
  6. Minah bought this bag, Ali likes its color
  7. I have a beautiful wife, My father looks for her
  8. This Boy is smart, He uses the red headscarf
  9. Today is independence day, it was declared in 1945
  10. Fivin is reading a book, Its book is written by me
  11. Cindy kicks this ball. He makes a good goal
  12. The mount is Merapi. It is very explosive
  13. This boy is singing to me, he is very handsome
  14. Michael married 3 girls, one of them is British
  15. Indonesia has five big islands, these are Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Irian, the biggest of them is Kalimantan
  16. 10 november is victory day, it is my spirit.
  17. Love brings peace to all. You told them.
  18. The Oslo Ibrahim song is very good, I listened to it.
  19. I met a beautiful girl, her sweater is black brown
  20. This house is very quiet, I’m interested in it
  21. This book contains a good idea, the covers of it are red in color
  22. Putra was enjoying this music. Its music from east Java
  23. Putri meets Putra at Tengkayu port, Putra works there
  24. Her reason is dissatisfaction, Purnomo hates Rina
  25. Heru will never forget Raisa, She got lucky day at that time
  26. They wrote letters in his book, They are teachers
  27. The girl is beautiful, She is playing harpist
  28. This house is white, I bought it last year
  29. This office has 5 employees, all of them are Industrial Engineering
  30. . This song will give spirit, Ariel is singing this song

Answers to Adjective Clause Questions

  1. The answer to question no.1 is “Who” the sentence then becomes “This Girl, who reads a bad news, is so bad.”
  2. The answer to question no.2 is “Which” the sentence then becomes “The store which is good is rented by my brother.
  3. The answer to question no.3 is “Which” the sentence then becomes “The question which has been answered by Abdi is difficult”.
  4. The answer to question no.4 is “Which” the sentence then becomes “The land which I like very much is very expensive.
  5. The answer to question no.5 is “Will” the sentence then becomes “Raisa will visit Bali Islands the beautiful of which is Kintamani.
  6. The answer to question no.6 is “Which” the sentence then becomes “MInah bought this bag which color Ali likes.
  7. The answer to question no.7 is “Whom” the sentence then becomes “I have a beautiful wife whom my father looks for.
  8. The answer to question no.8 is “Who” the sentence then becomes “This boy who uses the red headscarf is smart.
  9. The answer to question no.9 is “Which” the sentence then becomes “Today is independence day which was declared in 1945.
  10. The answer to question no.10 is “Which” the sentence then becomes “Fivin is reading a book which book is written by me
  11. The answer to question no.11 is “Who” the sentence then becomes “Cindy kicks this ball who makes a good goal”, meaning: Cindy kicks this ball which makes the best goal)
  12. Answer to question no.12. is “Which”, the sentence then becomes “The mount which is very explosive is Merapi, meaning: Mount which is very explosive is Merapi
  13. Answer to question no.13. is “Who”, the sentence then becomes “This girl who is very beautiful is singing to me” | Meaning: This very beautiful girl sings to me
  14. Answer to question no.14. is “Whom” the sentence then becomes “Michael married 4 girls, one of whom is Arabic” | Meaning: Michael married 4 daughters, one of whom is Arab
  15. The answer to question no.15 is “Whom”, the sentence then becomes “Indonesia has five big islands, these are Kalimantan, Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi and Irian, The biggest of whom is Kalimantan” | Meaning: Indonesia has five major islands namely Kalimantan, Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi and Irian, the largest of which is Kalimantan
  16. The answer to question no.16 is “Which” the sentence then becomes “November 10 which is my spirit is victory days. | Meaning: November 10, which is my spirit, is victory day
  17. The answer to question no.17 is “Whom” the sentence then becomes “Love whom you told brings peace to all. | Meaning: The love you tell brings peace to all
  18. The answer to question no.18 is “Which” the sentence then becomes “Oslo Ibrahim song’s which I listened to is very good | Meaning: The Oslo Ibrahim song that I listen to is very good
  19. The answer to question no.19 is “Whose” the sentence then becomes “I met a beautiful girl whose sweater is black brown | Meaning: I met a beautiful girl whose sweater is dark brown)
  20. The answer to question no.20 is “Which” the sentence then becomes “This house is very quiet which I am interested in. | Meaning: This house is very quiet which I am interested in
  21. The answer to question no.21 is “Which” the sentence then becomes “This book, the covers of which are red color, contains a good idea| Meaning: This book, which has a red cover, contains good ideas
  22. The answer to question no.22 is “Whose” the sentence then becomes “Putra was enjoying this music whose music is from east Java.
  23. The answer to question no.23 is “Where” the sentence then becomes “Putri met Putra at Tengkayu port where Putra works.
  24. The answer to question no.24 is “Whose” the sentence then becomes “Purnomo hates Rina whose reason is dissatisfaction.
  25. The answer to question no.25 is “Who”, the sentence then becomes “Heru will never forget Raisa who got lucky day at that time.
  26. The answer to question no.26 is “Who” the sentence then becomes “They wrote letters in his book who are teachers.
  27. The answer to question no.27 is “Who” the sentence then becomes “The girl who is playing harpist is beautiful.
  28. The answer to question no.28 is “Which” the sentence then becomes “This house which I bought last year is white.
  29. The answer to question no.29 is “Whom” the sentence then becomes “This office has 5 employees all of whom are industrial engineering.
  30. The answer to question no.30 is “Which” the sentence then becomes “This song which Ariel is singing will give spirit.
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