Hello Statisticians, this time Sinaumedia will review about recognizing 3 types of research that you need to know. For those of you who are going through a thesis or research, I hope this article can be an inspiration.

Although there is often a blur within the boundaries, research in general can be classified into 3 types. The first is exploratory research, explanatory research or confirmatory research , and descriptive research.


An exploratory research is a type of research that is open, still searching, and does not necessarily have a hypothesis. Researchers’ knowledge about the symptoms to be studied is still very little.

Scoping research is thus often carried out as the first step for more in-depth research, be it explanatory research or descriptive research. Through this exploratory research, research problems can be formulated more clearly and in more detail, and hypotheses can be developed.

In general, the definition of exploratory research is an activity in conducting an in-depth analysis of something new, which has never existed before.

Here are some examples of studies with exploratory research designs:

  • A study of the role of social networking sites as an effective marketing communication channel
  • Investigation of how to improve the quality of customer service in the hospitality sector in Bangkok
  • Assessment of the role of corporate social responsibility on consumer behavior in the Garment industry in Vietnam


Explanatory research is a type of research that highlights the relationship between research variables and tests hypotheses that have been formulated previously. Therefore, this has also eaten research hypothesis testing or testing research . Although the description also contains a description, as a relational research the focus lies in explaining the relationship between variables.

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Explanatory Research allows researchers to provide deep insight into a particular subject, which breeds more subjects and provides more opportunities for researchers to learn new things and question new things.

An in-depth study of a subject creates cycles and, critical thinking/study of a subject creates more questions and those questions lead to more ways for the researcher to learn more things related to that subject.

Explanatory research is a type of research that is a pillar of other types of researchers. Before starting the research for the next research, we should always do explanatory research first, because without it the research would not be complete and would not be as efficient.

Explanatory research works to give your survey and research design a better focus and significantly limits unwanted bias information.


Descriptive research usually has two objectives. The first is to determine the development of certain physical facilities or the frequency of occurrence of certain aspects of social phenomena. For example, the number of two-wheeled vehicles, four-wheeled vehicles, family planning acceptors, the number of films being screened, and so on.

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The results are listed in the frequency table table. the second is to describe in detail certain social phenomena. For example, social interaction, kinship system, and others. Such research is usually carried out without a rigorously formulated hypothesis. Sometimes using a hypothesis but not for statistical testing

In essence, descriptive research is used to describe various aspects of phenomena. In its popular format, descriptive research is used to describe the characteristics and/or behavior of a sample population.

An important characteristic of descriptive research relates to the fact that although descriptive research can use a number of variables, only one variable is needed to conduct descriptive research. The three main objectives of descriptive studies can be described as describing, explaining and validating research findings.

this type of descriptive research is closely related to observational research, but is not limited to the method of collecting observational data. Case studies and surveys can also be defined as popular data collection methods used with descriptive studies.