Knowing the Impact of Forest Fires on Human Survival!

The impact of forest fires – In the past, Indonesia was often considered the lungs of the
world because it had a very large area of ​​forest.
Forests are claimed to have a central role
in producing oxygen for mankind.
Unfortunately, the case of forest fires that hit Indonesia has
made the forest area in Indonesia narrower and smaller.
This of course brings fantastic losses
to the country and also threatens public health.

Broadly speaking, forest fires are caused by two primary factors. The first is natural factors
and the second is human-made factors that are not controlled. Natural factors, such as the influence of the
El-Nino effect, cause long dry spells so that the plants become very dry.

Before discussing fire, of course, we must first know what the definition of fire is. In this
case, of course, fire has a role as an igniter for a fire that occurs somewhere.
A small fire
can become big and start a fire.

Fire is a chemical reaction formed from three elements, namely heat, oxygen and fuel which produce light
and heat.
These three elements combine and become an element, namely fire. That’s
why the fire we see today can produce light as well as create a feeling of heat around it.

Fire itself is an uncontrolled fire that can harm the safety and property around us. The
nature of the fire before it starts is very important, usually igniting nearby objects for 3-10 minutes.
I

this is why if a fire occurs in a densely populated settlement, it will spread to neighboring houses.
Especially if the fire occurs in the forest. All life in the forest, such as flora,
animals, and even humans, can die as a result of the fires that occur.
Now, on this occasion,
sinaumedia will discuss the impact of forest fires and how to prevent them.
For those of you who
are curious about the impact of forest fires and how to prevent forest fires, see the following
reviews!

Forest fires

Forest fires and land fires are surface fires where the fire burns fuel such as (debris, trees, bushes,
etc.) above the surface.
The fire then spreads abnormally below the surface (burning above
ground), burning organic matter through the peat pit and bush/tree roots, the tops of which ignite.

As it progressed, the flames spread both vertically and horizontally within the smoke pocket, burning only
white smoke on the surface.
The fire will be very difficult to extinguish because the fire
starts underground and only smoke rises to the surface.

Previously, Indonesia had experienced the largest forest fires, these fires occurred in 1982, 1983, 1991,
1994, 1997, 1998, 2006 and 2015. The 2015 fires caused 80% of Sumatra to be covered in thick smoke due to
the fires.
The impact of forest fires is of course detrimental to all parties, starting from
the economy, health and society, because the smoke and fires can also disturb neighboring countries.
Therefore, it is necessary to take serious measures regarding this disaster and analyze the reasons
for its failure.

Climate change is increasing the frequency of forest fires and the resulting damage. This
assertion does not come from wishful thinking, or from something that fell from the sky, but from
science.

In fact, there has been no shortage of efforts so far to recover from and prevent outbreaks of wildfires.
In Indonesia, the United States, Australia, everywhere they have been affected for years.
However, forest fires continue to occur with great damage. This does not include the
dead and missing.

In America, President Donald Trump, one of the people who do not believe in climate change, and he blames the bad
management of forests by the authorities in California.

In Indonesia, forest firers as well as individuals or companies are often targeted. It is very
possible that there was negligence on the part of parties with an interest in the forest.
But
science, in general, blatantly dismisses such accusations: that forest fires are becoming more frequent,
with all the consequences, because of climate change.

Several studies have established a relationship between the two phenomena. For example, a 2014
study has results published in the journal
Advanced Earth and Space Sciences. Key
findings: Rising temperatures and accompanying droughts are causing forest fires to break out in all
parts of the world.
Another 2015 study found that the number of fire days per year is
increasing as global temperatures continue to rise.

The following year’s study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, found
that climate change will continue to ‘increase the likelihood’ of wildfires in the western United
States.
In addition, it was also found that increasing temperature and water vapor pressure
in the forests of the Western United States over the past few decades have caused 75% of the forest area
to be threatened by forest fires.

What is indisputable: forest fires cause material losses. Research by San Diego State
University in 2009 found the economic costs of forest fires were far greater than previously thought.
For example, the consequences of the forest fires in 2003 were about $2 billion higher than
estimates.
In Indonesia, the World Bank estimates that the damage from forest fires in 2019
will reach IDR 72.95 trillion.

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Researchers from the University of Oregon point to one possible really heavy effect on forest fires.
Large-scale forest fires, he concluded, “generated instability in the labor market due to stronger
seasonal variations in employment in subsequent years”.

Science also confirms that human activities are increasing global temperatures, which in turn causes
climate change.
It is truly a hint of what can be done to prevent future forest fires, namely
taking steps to reduce the impact of human activities on the climate.
Of course, this requires
a political decision.
However, actors, especially companies actively choosing this path, must
be supported.

Impact of Forest Fires

Following are some of the impacts of forest fires on human health, which need to be watched out for, summarized
by sinaumedia.com from several sources.

1. Lung and Respiratory Infections

Smoke from forest fires can cause local/local irritation to the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth and
throat which are in direct contact with fire smoke, as well as triggering allergic reactions, inflammation
and possibly inflammation.
, starting with ARI and if severe can reach pneumonia .

The ability of the lungs and respiratory tract to deal with infection is also reduced, making infection
more likely.
Human) and bad environment (environment).

2. Lowering Body Resistance

In general, various chronic diseases in various organs of the body (heart, liver, kidneys) can also get
worse.
This is partly due to an indirect effect as the mist suppresses the immune system and
also causes stress.
It should be emphasized again that the elderly and children (as well as
people with chronic diseases) with weak immune systems are more susceptible to health problems.

3. Causing the Loss of Habitat of
Living Creatures in the Forest

Forest fires in Riau occur automatically which can damage local animal habitats. Creatures
that live in the forest are expelled and stop surviving such as interacting, eating, breathing, etc.
There are also rumors that a tiger has come out of the forest. He was looking for
another place to live to replace what he had lost.
In addition to losing their homes, creatures
in the forest could die if they didn’t escape.

Forest creatures seek and find new habitats that will disturb society. If this continues and
no further action is taken, losses will occur.
Humans will also lose their habitat as animals
will lose their homes.

4. Hard to Find Clean Water

Forests are important water reservoirs for survival. If the forest continues to dry up, then
there is nothing to hold back water, rainwater or mountain water.
The existence of water and
forests is directly proportional.
When forests are thinned, there is nothing left to hold
water, reducing groundwater (artesian) water supplies.

If this continued, it would be difficult for sentient beings to obtain clean water. The damage
caused by a lack of drinking water includes public health that will be disrupted, the water cycle will be
disrupted, thus impacting climate change, such as prolonged drought and irregular rain cycles.

5. Headache, Nausea, and Vomiting

Another impact of forest fires on human health is that they can cause headaches, nausea, and vomiting.
Exposure to carbon monoxide inhaled from forest fires can also cause headaches.

Even with headaches, carbon monoxide poisoning causes nausea and vomiting due to reduced oxygen supply to
the body.
Migraine-like headaches are the type most often associated with the chemicals that
cause fire fumes.

6. Reflex cough due to mucus irritation

As much as possible, people should limit outdoor activities to avoid exposure to high levels of smoke from
forest and land fires.
Otherwise, exposure to smoke can cause a person to cough.

Indeed, the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract secrete more mucus when irritated. The
increased production of mucus and the tightening of the airway muscles cause the cough reflex.

7. Global Warming

Due to the inclusion of chemicals such as carbon monoxide (CO) and aldehydes, the pollution caused by
intentional forest fires is far more dangerous than natural fires.
The downside of smoke
pollution is that it is harmful to public health and inhibits plant photosynthesis.

In addition, the harmful effects of ozone, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons.
Different types of substances can travel long distances and be converted into other gases such as
ozone or particles such as nitrate and organic oxygen during this transport.
The ozone layer
can also be destroyed by these chemicals.
When the ozone layer is damaged, the earth’s surface
temperature rises, global warming occurs and the polar ice caps melt.

In addition, UV rays directly hit the earth (nothing gets in the way). It can also affect
people’s health, including skin cancer caused by UV rays.
The next drawback is the greenhouse
effect it causes.
Indeed, the resulting smoke prevents heat from being reflected back into the
biosphere.
As a result, heat radiates from the surface and is reflected back into the smoke
above and cannot escape.
If this continues, the greenhouse effect could melt the polar ice
caps, and if this happens, the country could sink.

The dynamics of the development of pollutants that enter the body of the environment are increasingly
diverse in quality and quantity, which are influenced by various human activities on earth.
The
entry of pollutant into the environment will have a direct and indirect impact on the environment and the
health of the population in the area.
To anticipate this, an initial analysis of potential
risks to ecosystems and society is carried out to control pollutant levels and prevention scenarios are also
developed.

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8. Source of Dangerous Pollutants

Pollutants in the smoke from forest fires that fall to the surface of the earth can also be a source of
contamination in unprotected drinking water and catering facilities.
If then the contaminated
water and food are consumed by the public, it is not impossible that digestive disorders and other diseases
will occur.

9. Exacerbates Asthma

Another effect of wildfires is that they exacerbate asthma and other chronic lung diseases, such as chronic
bronchitis, COPD, and more.
Smoke from forest fires will be inhaled into the lungs.
The ability of the lungs to work is reduced, the patient gets tired easily and has difficulty
breathing.

10. Causes Eye and Skin Irritation

The main impact of forest fires on human health is that they can cause eye and skin irritation. Eye and
skin irritation can occur as a result of exposure to smoke.
Fire smoke causes symptoms of
severe itching, watery eyes, inflammation and infection.

11. The Fall of a Big Tree

A tree that should have lived many years fell by accident. The existence of what is happening
will also be disrupted.
If this continues, forest fires continue to occur and without
commensurate repairs, we will lose large green open spaces that can produce oxygen and natural resources.
Indeed, this time the results will not be small, but the losses will be much greater.

The downside is that existing agricultural land is used for construction and settlement, whereas forests
are inhabited by other organisms that are used to expand agricultural land.
Later, our
generation will only think that the forest is just a fairy tale because the past has passed, they cannot
find the forest.
The absence of forests would also cause a lot of damage. Such as
floods, landslides, global warming and rising temperatures.

12. The Economy is Disrupted

This can happen because the smoke from pollution caused by forest fires is very thick, making it difficult
for people to carry out economic transactions.
This loss has an impact on residents because it
can reduce the income of residents who work in the private sector.
In addition, for regional
agencies it also disrupts activities that rely on local governments in achieving regional
development.

How to Prevent Forest Fires

Prevention of forest fires is not only the duty of forest rangers, but also the obligation of all
Indonesian people.
To reduce the potential for forest fires in Indonesia, the following methods
can be applied.

1. Analysis of Fire Prone Points

To determine the flammability point in an area, we can use the Keetch Byram Index method .
This method is done by assessing the danger of forest fires based on the index or degree of
drought in an area.
With proper analysis, the risk of land fires can be avoided and
continuously managed.

2. Conduct Routine Patrols

Forest patrols are very important to protect forests, especially against potential forest fires and illegal
logging.
Endemic forest fires require more frequent and strict forest patrols and monitoring.
Especially during the dry season, forest patrols and monitoring must be carried out more
frequently.

3. Detect forest or land fires as soon
as possible

Even when preventive measures have been taken through flash point analysis as well as strict patrols or
surveillance, the forest is still at risk of burning.
Therefore, rangers and the public must
prepare for the worst.
To make the most of forest fire prevention measures, to be careful and
quick to detect hot spots.

The following steps can be taken to detect forest fires quickly, including:

  • Establish a watchtower that has long visibility, complete with binoculars, detection and
    communication equipment.
  • Build guard posts in forest areas and border areas with residents or business land.
  • Analyzing data from flights, satellites and weather data in forest areas.

4. Prepare Fire Fighting Equipment

All active equipment for forest fire management must be loaded and available at all times.
This is intended to speed up the extinguishing and evacuation process in the event of a forest or
field fire.
Quick and proper handling will help reduce excessive losses.

It is also important to create water reservoirs in areas where there is a risk of explosion.
This is an effective way because the proximity to water will speed up the extinguishing and
evacuation process.

In addition, it is also necessary to install an alarm bell to signal when a fire occurs. This
alarm is intended to alert nearby rangers and volunteers to turn off immediately and evacuate early.
So that forest and land fires do not spread or spread too far.

5. Conducting Extension and Education

Suggestions can also be given periodically so that people understand the dangers of forest fires, how to
prevent them, and how to deal with them.
These tips will increase public awareness about forest
sustainability.
In addition, the board can also be used as a means of education and practice on
how to handle fires in the field.

The following is some knowledge that can be given to the community, including:

  • It is not allowed to burn anything in forest areas that can cause fire to spread, such as dry
    grass or plastic and others.
  • Do not burn in areas prone to fire.
  • When you have finished burning something, make sure that the fire is completely extinguished
    so that there is no possibility of it reappearing, spreading and causing a forest fire.
  • If you see a source of fire or fire, report it immediately or communicate with the guard post
    or guard on patrol so that it can be dealt with quickly.
  • Provide an understanding of local regulations regarding permits and restrictions on
    burning prohibitions.
    This regulation was prepared by the Ministry of Forestry and Natural
    Resources.
    For example regarding the minimum distance of burning, permits and regulations
    for camping activities, regulations for workers in the forest, and so on.