Know the Properties of Organic and Inorganic Chemical Compounds

Compound is a chemical substance. Where compounds can be formed due to natural processes.
But there are also those that are deliberately made for the benefit of humans. A
compound is a single substance that can be broken down into several elements.
In general,
compounds have various kinds of elements chemically combined with each other.
Thus, the symbol
for a compound consists of several symbol elements.

In addition, a compound is a substance consisting of two or more elements, where these elements are
chemically combined to form a new substance whose properties are different from the constituent elements.
These elements will lose their properties and appear with their new properties according to the
properties of the compounds formed.

A compound will be denoted by a chemical formula. Where the chemical formula in a compound
will state the composition, number, and also the types of atoms in a compound.
Examples of
compounds are water (H2O), table salt (NaCl), carbon dioxide (CO2), potassium hydroxide (KOH), and barium
hydroxide (Ba(OH)2).

Definition of Compound

A compound is a single substance that can be broken down into two or more elements. In
addition, compounds also have several elements that are chemically combined with each other.
So
generally the symbol of a compound will be drawn from several symbols of elements.
An analysis
that finds the constituent elements of a compound is generally referred to as qualitative analysis.
Meanwhile, if the analysis finds a comparison of each number of elements present in the compound,
it is called quantitative analysis.

Compound Features

The following are some of the characteristics of chemical compounds, including:

a. Formed from two or more elements arranged using ordinary chemical
reactions.

b. Has a fixed composition
ratio.

c. Loses the properties of the original substance when
it becomes a compound.

d. Can be broken down chemically, but
not physically.

Compound Properties

Each compound has different properties from its constituent elements. Compounds can only be
broken down into their constituent elements by a chemical reaction.
Under the same conditions,
compounds can have different forms from their constituent elements.

Physical properties and also chemical compounds are two things that are different from the elements that
form them.
For example, the chemical reaction of two hydrogen atoms (2H) and one oxygen atom
(O) can form a water molecule (H2O).
In simple terms, compounds have five properties that we
can distinguish between one compound and another.
Among them are:

a. Compounds can be formed through chemical reaction processes
b.
The constituent components in the compound have a certain ratio that has a fixed
nature

c. The compound itself cannot be separated from its
constituent components again by using a chemical reaction

d.
Compounds can be categorized as single substance compounds

e.
Compounds have certain properties that differ from the elements that make them up

Various Compounds

Based on its origin, compounds are divided into two, namely organic compounds and inorganic compounds.
Here is a full explanation:

1. Organic Compounds

An organic compound is defined as a compound composed of the element carbon as its main framework, which
binds non-metallic elements such as oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen.
These compounds usually come
from living things or are formed from living organisms.
This one compound is very easy to find,
such as urea or urea in urine or urine.
Then the sugar or sucrose in the cane and also the
alcohol is the result of fermentation of the sugar solution.

Another definition of an organic compound is a compound containing carbon and hydrogen along with other
elements such as nitrogen and oxygen.
CO, CO2 and O2 are not organic compounds, because they do
not contain hydrogen atoms.

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Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen. Where we encounter
many hydrocarbon compounds in nature and also in living things.
Starting from fuel to molecules
that originate and are found in living things such as proteins, carbohydrates, fats, amino acids, and so
on.

a. Alkane Compounds

Alkanes are the simplest hydrocarbons because they only contain single bonds between carbons and are also
the least reactive.
Even so, commercially alkanes are needed. This is because
alkanes are compounds that are present in lubricants and gasoline.

The main characteristic that exists in alkanes and distinguishes them from other carbon-hydrogen compounds
is that alkanes are saturated.
Because it has saturated properties, alkane compounds do not
contain double bonds between carbon atoms.
Compounds that have double bonds will usually be
very reactive.

For the energy that is in the carbon-carbon bonds and also in the carbon-hydrogen bonds in alkanes is quite
large.
When alkanes are burned, the compound will release a large amount of heat, especially in
the form of fire.
Where the simplest alkane is methane.

Examples of Alkanes

The following are two examples of alkane compounds that need to be understood:

1. Methane

Methane or CH4 is the simplest hydrocarbon. Where this one alkane compound is in the form of a
gas at standard temperature and pressure conditions or STP.

2. Ethane

Two single bonded carbon atoms are usually supplemented by six hydrogens which is called ethane.
Ethane is the second simplest hydrocarbon molecule. Methane itself can be thought of
as two methane molecules bonded to each other, but with a halved hydrogen atom.

b. Alkenes and Alkynes

The nomenclature of alkenes and alkynes is actually almost the same as alkanes, but only changing the
ending -ane to -ene.
The following are examples of alkenes:

C2H4 is called ethylene.
C3H6 is called propene.

While alkyne compounds use the ending -una. The following are examples of alkyne
compounds:

C2H2 is ethyne.
C3H4 is a propane.

As for the nomenclature of compounds containing more carbon atoms such as alkenes and alkynes, it is
necessary to understand the position of the double bond.
The position of the alkene and alkyne
double bonds is in the carbon atom with the smallest serial number.

Describe Alkanes

When writing alkane structures, you can use different writing models according to your needs.
The general formula for alkanes is CnH2n+2. Here are four different examples of
writing pentane:

2. Inorganic Compounds

Inorganic compounds are compounds that are not composed of carbon atoms. Usually these
compounds are found in nature.
Some examples of this compound are table salt or sodium chloride
with the symbol NaCI, aluminum hydroxide, which is usually found in ulcer medicines, has the symbol AI(OH)3.
Likewise with the gases that are in the respiration process, namely oxygen gas with the symbol O2
and also carbon dioxide gas with the symbol CO2.
Acid is also one of the inorganic compounds
that we are easily familiar with, for example nitric acid (HNO3), hydrochloric acid (HCl), and so on.

Inorganic compounds are compounds composed primarily of metal atoms, which is what we see in many
non-living substances.
For example, rocks, soil, water, and so forth. Meanwhile,
inorganic compounds can be classified as acid-base oxide compounds and also salt forms, the following is a
chart that describes the compounds:

Oxide compounds are compounds formed by oxygen atoms with other atoms. The presence of oxygen
atoms as a characteristic of oxide compounds.
If based on the elements that form oxide
compounds, these compounds can be divided into two types, namely metal oxide compounds and non-metallic
oxide compounds.
The classification can be simplified in the following chart:

Broadly speaking, the main reasons for separating the fields of study of organic compounds and inorganic
compounds are:

a. The number of organic compounds is more than the inorganic
compounds.

b. All organic compounds contain carbon atoms which are unique
in terms of their ability to form chains with fellow carbon atoms and have distinctive
properties.

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Differences between Organic Compounds and
Inorganic Compounds

a. Organic Compounds

– The majority comes from living things and some comes from synthesis
– Organic compounds are more
flammable

– The structure of organic compounds is more complicated
– All
organic compounds contain the element carbon

– Can only dissolve in organic
solvents

– CH4, C2H5OH, C2H6 and so on

b. Inorganic Compounds

– Derived from mineral natural resources, not living things
– Non-flammable
– Inorganic
compounds have a simple structure

– Not all inorganic compounds have the element
carbon

– Can dissolve in water or organic solvents
– NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI
and so on

isometry

The molecular formula is a substance that only shows the number and types of atoms present.
While the structural formula will explain how the atoms are arranged. For example, H2O
is the molecular formula for water.
Where each water molecule is composed of two hydrogen atoms
and also one oxygen atom.

The structural formula is H – O – H

The origin of the term isomer is from the Latin “isos” which means the same and “methos” means part.
Thus, structural isomers are compounds that have the same molecular formula but different
structural formulas.

For example: For the formula C2H6O

Structural Formula:

In the first formula, the two carbons are linked by a single covalent bond. While in the
second formula, carbon is associated with oxygen.
To understand which arrangement belongs to a
liquid and which is a gas, that is by means of a simple chemical test.
Where liquid C2H6O or
ethyl alcohol/ethanol reacts with sodium metal to produce hydrogen gas and a new compound C2H5Ona.
Meanwhile C2H6O gas or dimethyl ether will not react with sodium metal. Both are
structural isomers which have the same structural formula but differ in structure.

The Role of Organic Chemistry in Everyday
Life

Organic chemistry has many roles in everyday life through other branches of science. Almost
the same as reactions in living bodies involving organic substances and also the main ingredients of these
bodies, namely carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, cell membranes, enzymes, and hormones are
organic compounds.

Organic compounds that we can see in everyday life are gasoline, wood furniture, clothing, paper for books,
medicines, plastic packages, film for photographs, carpets, perfumes, and so on.
Often, we also
hear news such as epoxy, polyethylene, styrofoam, unsaturated fats, nicotine, cholesterol, and octane
number.
Those are examples of organic compounds that have quite an important role in everyday
life.

Where the compounds mentioned above have meaning in meeting human needs and also as one of the real
evidence of the existing compound forms.
The following are some forms of organic
compounds:

a. methanol

Methanol can be converted to methanol which is used to make polymers or plastics as a solvent to make organic
compounds.

b. Ethanol

Ethanol is an ordinary alcohol which belongs to the most important alcohols. At room
temperature, ethanol is a clear liquid, evaporates easily and has a characteristic odor.

Writing Structural Formulas

In writing the structural formula, to learn more about organic chemistry can be done in several ways, for
example, with the molecular formula C5H12

a. Formula Chain (CCCCC)

Straight chains usually use one valence for each carbon at the end to the next carbon in the middle of the
chain.
Therefore, every carbon that has a trivalent side serves to bond hydrogen.

Structural Formula Abbreviation

To make it easier for us to write the structural formula, it can be done in an abbreviated way without
reducing the meaning of the formula itself.
For example, the structural formulas for ethyl
alcohol, where each formula clearly distinguishes ethyl alcohol from dimethyl ether, can be represented by
one of the following structures: