Inventor of Airplanes – Has Sinaumed’s ever traveled by airplane? That’s right, we must be familiar with one of the biggest transportation. Based on the sophistication of aircraft technology, does Sinaumed’s know who the genius inventor of the airplane is? As one of the greatest inventions in the world, airplanes have a long history of discovery until now we can even fly hundreds of miles in the air.
The Wright Brothers (Wright Brother) are Orville (born August 19, 1871) and Wilbur Wright (born April 16, 1867) who are two American siblings who are believed to be the inventors of airplanes. On December 17, 1903, they succeeded in making an airplane with its first human-controlled flight. Two years after its invention, the two brothers developed a “flying machine” into the shape of a winged airplane, as we know it today.
Although not the first aircraft inventors to manufacture experimental aircraft, the Wright brothers were the first brothers to control aircraft so that they could steer the aircraft with the wings firmly attached. Their invention based on the first hot air balloon flight invented by French citizens Joseph Montgolfier and Etienne Montgolfier occurred in 1782, after which a German named Ferdinand von Zeppelin detained passengers and goods in 1900.
The following year, the Zeppelin balloon completed the airlift to the Zeppelin shipwreck on a transatlantic voyage in New Jersey. The year 1936 before World War II, marked the end of the Zeppelin era. After the Wright era, the aircraft has undergone many changes in design, shape, and engine to meet the needs of aviation.
The work of the two brothers is interdependent, so they are included in the list together and can explain the history of the invention of the airplane. Wilbur Wright was born in 1867 in Milville, Indiana, while Orville Wright (his younger brother) was born in 1871 in Dayton, Ohio. Both boys went to college, but neither had a diploma. Wright two brothers of seven children.
In 1878, his father bought a toy helicopter for the youngest of two children. The toy is made of bamboo and rubber and the propeller rotates. Wilbur and Orville played with it until it broke. Then they make their own toys. They stated that the experience of playing with bamboo dragonflies was the source of their love for airplane engines.
Both have a gift for mechanics and are interested in the problem of people flying in the sky. In 1892 they joined the business, selling, repairing and manufacturing of bicycles. With this transaction, the fund has added research in its objective, namely aviation. In 1899 they started to focus on aviation itself. In December 1903, after more than four years of struggle, his efforts succeeded brilliantly.
The Wright brothers learned to fly gliders together. First they learn how to work kites, then paragliders. The following year, they brought gliders large enough to carry humans to Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. This aircraft is being tested. They then built and worked on a complete glider in 1901 and built it in 1902.
This third glider is a combination of the most important inventions. Many of the basic patents applied for in 1903 related to this glider, not to earlier aircraft. They managed to fly the third glider more than 1000 times. The two Wright brothers have been some of the best and most experienced glider pilots in the world since they started building electric airplanes.
Experience in the air with the glider is the essence of his third and most important success. Many who have attempted to build airplanes before have absolute apprehension about how their work will spread. The Wright brothers soon realized that the main problem was how to control the plane once it was in the air.
For this reason, they spend most of their time and attention on the question of how to achieve aircraft stability in flight. They managed to build three main categories of devices to control the aircraft, which resulted in a successful demonstration. The Wright brothers also made significant contributions to wing design. They realized that the discovery data that was originally sent could not serve as a guide.
For this reason, they created their own wind tunnel and worked on more than 2000 different types of wing surface shapes. The key point of the experiment was that the two brothers were able to make their own maps to explain that the air pressure on a wing depends on the shape of the wing. This information is used in aircraft wing work.
Attempts to use aviation engines in the first half of the 19th century tended to fail. The bright steam engines were too heavy for air traffic. The internal combustion engine was invented when the Wright brothers appeared. However, these engines are intended for general engineering purposes only and are too heavy for use in aircraft aviation. When no factory could produce a mechanical design that was light enough, the Wright brothers developed their own (with the help of a mechanic).
This shows their intelligence, as they can come up with better engine designs in a relatively short amount of time than almost any other manufacturer. In addition, the Wright brothers had developed their own propeller design which they used in 1903 with a 66% success rate.
The first flight occurred on December 17, 1903, at Kill Devil Hills near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. That day, the two brothers made two flights each. The first flight made by Orville Wright lasted 12 seconds and covered 120 feet. Wilbur Wright’s final flight took 59 seconds and covered 852 feet. The plane they called the Flyer I (now Kitty Hawk) cost less than $1,000.
The plane had a wingspan of 40 feet, weighed about 750 pounds, was equipped with a 12 hp engine, and only 170 pounds. The original aircraft is now in the Washington, DC Aerospace Museum. After flying in Kitty Hawk, the Wright brothers returned to their hometown of Dayton. So they designed and manufactured a second plane, the Flyer II. With this second aircraft, they made 105 flights in 1904, but did not attract public attention.
The improved and more practical Flyer III aircraft was produced in 1905. They often flew around the city of Dayton, but many still do not believe that the so-called airplane was born. In 1908, his findings dispelled all common fears and suspicions. Wilbur Wright flew his plane to France, performed aerial acrobatics, and organized a company to sell his work.
Meanwhile, Orville Wright gave a similar demonstration in the United States. Unfortunately, the plane crashed on September 17, 1908. This was the only misfortune that the two of them had. One passenger died and Orville broke his leg and two ribs, but he recovered quickly. The successful flight led the US government to sign a US Department of Defense aircraft manufacturing contract.
In 1909 the government procurement budget was carried out including a $30,000 air force contract. A patent lawsuit was filed between the Wright brothers and their rivals, but in 1914 their charges were dismissed by the courts. Needless to say, Wilbur Wright contracted typhoid fever in 1912 and died at the age of 45. Orville Wright, who sold his stake in the company in 1915, lived until 1948.
In fact there have been many researchers or inventors of airplanes, but it was undoubtedly the Wright brothers who pioneered the more comprehensive invention of airplanes. The invention of the airplane is an absolute phenomenon for both peaceful and war purposes.
Flying has been a human dream for centuries. They want to soar in the clouds on a flying carpet, just like the Arabian Midnight fairy tale. It was the genius of the Wright brothers who actually flew in a plane and made this dream come true, rather than sitting cross-legged on a fairytale rug.
History of the Development of the Discovery of Airplanes
1. “The Phoenix” by Ibn Firnas (852)
Armed with a simple falcon-shaped device attached to a silk cloak and a wooden frame, Ibn Firnas glided down a hill in Cordoba (Spain) witnessed by the Moomin poet Ibn Sa’id, in the fall of 852.
2. Gliders (1050)
The flight was not very successful, but the apparatus used by Firnas received a lot of attention from scientists. Two centuries after Firnas, a priest from Malmesbury, England improved Firnas’ plan by adding a tail, he called the tool a glider. He managed to fly for 15 minutes at a distance of 200 meters from the church tower.
3. Ornithopter (1488)
Discovered in 1488 by the Italian scientist Leonardo da Vinci. This concept is called ornithopter. The term comes from the Greek words, ornito meaning bird and pteron meaning wing. This tool uses the working principle of bird and insect wings. Da Vinci thought that humans would be quite heavy if only supported by sturdy wings. Therefore, humans need more dynamic wings to fly longer and farther.
4. Airships (1709)
Author Francesco Lana de Terzi concluded that an object could be lighter than air if it used a large copper chamber to store gas. The space is used as a transport power. Air circulation must be maintained as well as possible so that objects can still fly. This work inspired the invention of the airship by Bartolomeo Gusmao, a Portuguese in 1709. This was the first human flight without wings.
5. Hot Air Balloon (1783)
Two brothers, Joseph and Jack Montgolfier, were able to fly an object in 1783 using the airship principle. They replaced the copper material with giant silk balls. There is a slit at the bottom of the ball for burning straw. Hot air is a source of energy. A box without a lid is attached to the ball. Passengers get into the box.
6. Monoplanes (1790s)
After the “fly lighter than air” experiment without wings, scientists started to think again with wings. Sir George Cayley, a British explorer, designed a simple airplane and its working principles in the late 18th century. He is believed to be the inventor of the modern airplane. Scientists William Samuel Henson and John Stringfellow worked together to perfect the use of wings. They created a single-winged steam-powered aviation engine in 1840.
7. Zeppelins (1900)
Ferdinand Adolf Heinrich August von Zeppelin was a German aviation expert who had created a large cigar-shaped hot air balloon that was easy to maneuver. Because of the airship principle, this plane called Zeppelin can fly more accurately. The aircraft is equipped with fins, engines and ladders. In 1900, Zeppelin successfully completed its first flight test. This wingless aircraft made its first commercial flight in 1909.
8. Biplanes (1903)
Two brothers from the United States, Orville and Wilbur Wright, built a two-bladed aircraft with a 12 hp engine. They call it a flyer. Wright invited the media and the general public for a test flight at Kitty Hawk Hill on December 17, 1903. With the pilot lying under the wing, the aircraft could fly at an altitude of 36 meters for 12 seconds. This success is seen as a new milestone in the development of winged and powered aircraft.
9. Fixed Wing (1904)
In 1904, a paper on the fixed wing concept of the modern aircraft was published in Germany. Professor Ludwig Prandtl’s work is seen as a new milestone in aerodynamic technology (the science of air friction in solid bodies). Fixed-wing is a concept that allows airplanes to fly without wings because they can balance air friction. This technology increases the lift of the aircraft.
10. Triple (1908)
Four years after Prandtl’s work was published, the Dreiflugler was introduced in France. The addition of wings was designed to improve performance and ease of handling, but the technology didn’t help. In fact, it makes it difficult for the pilot to maneuver.
11. Fabre Hydravion (1910)
For the first time in history, a single-winged aircraft landed on the surface of the water in 1910. The aircraft was named after its manufacturer, Fabre Hydravion. At the same time, Andre Billing introduced the first airplane simulation engine.
12. Boeing 247 (1933)
With the end of World War I, aircraft technology, especially aircraft with two or more people, developed rapidly. Boeing, the American aircraft manufacturer, introduced the first commercial airplane in 1933. Two pilots were required to fly and land this aircraft. This aircraft has twin engines and single wing.
13. Heinkel HE178 (1937)
The jet engine was invented by Englishman Frank Whittle in 1930, but until 1937 all modern airplanes still used propellers. The development of jet aircraft began in 1937. Two years later, an airplane equipped with a jet engine could fly. The use of jet engines has changed the shape of the wings. The wings are no longer rectangular. A slightly oblong edge, just below or just below the torso. This aircraft was known as the Heinkel HE 178 and was manufactured by the German aircraft company Heinkel.
14. Supersonic (1947)
This plane can fly faster than the speed of sound. The Bell X1 is the world’s first supersonic aircraft. Its first flight took place on October 14, 1947 by American pilot Chuck Yeager. The most famous supersonic aircraft is the Concorde, a joint venture between England and France.
15. Commercial Jets (1949)
After World War II, the British developed jet aircraft for commercial purposes and successfully developed this with the support of the British aircraft manufacturer De Havilland. Comet De Havilland first flew from London to South Africa in July 1949.
16. Fokker 28 (1967)
This aircraft has been the backbone of Indonesia’s regional aviation (short and medium haul flights that can accommodate 35,100 passengers) since 1971. The aircraft first flew on May 9, 1967 and quickly received worldwide attention. Several airlines around the world enjoy it, including Garuda Indonesia. Fokker 28 is believed to suit the characteristics of Indonesian runways which are not yet fully paved. This aircraft last flew in Indonesia in 2001.
17. Boeing 747 (1970)
Tracing the success of the Fokker aircraft company, Boeing did not want to be outdone. The world’s largest passenger aircraft was introduced in 1970. This 70 meter long and 59 meter wide aircraft is known as the jumbo jet. This aircraft is divided into two decks / floors. The 747, which can accommodate 400 passengers, remains the longest operating aircraft.
As Boeing’s rival, Airbus does not want to lose. After building the largest B707 of its time in 1969, Boeing built the B747. It is even bigger and in 2005 it was the largest airplane in history. Later, Airbus built the giant A380. The standard version has 854 passenger seats, which will be 525 if it is designed for three classes, namely Executive, Business, Economy.
Well, that’s an explanation of the inventor of the airplane and the history of its development. If Sinaumed’s is interested in the invention of other airplanes or other great inventions, then you can visit sinaumedia’s book collection at www.sinaumedia.com , such as the following book recommendations: #Friends Without Limits.