Cognitive Ability to Think

Cognitive Ability – Every individual is gifted with the ability to think and learn something new. It is also what makes an individual who initially does not know become more expert and knowledgeable. The ability to think of each individual is different according to their respective cognitive abilities.

For every parent who has children, cognitive abilities are of course important. Because the growth and development of children will be influenced by these cognitive abilities.

It is not uncommon for parents to learn the right way to develop cognitive abilities in their children. However, not a few parents also pay less attention to this. The following is a discussion of cognitive abilities to think.

Definition of Cognitive Ability

Cognitive ability is a process in humans that occurs internally in the central nervous system so that a person can think. Cognitive abilities in every human being are also in line with their physical growth and development.

All activities of each individual, for example, learning, developing an idea, considering an event, to solving problems are closely related to cognitive abilities. It can be said, cognitive abilities also have a big influence on the level of one’s intelligence.

According to KBBI or the Big Indonesian Dictionary, cognitive itself is defined as something that is related to and involves cognition or the activity of acquiring knowledge.

The definition of cognitive ability according to experts is as follows:

  1. According to Williams and Susanto, cognitive is the way an individual behaves, acts, and how fast the individual is when solving the problem at hand.
  2. According to Neisser, cognitive is the acquisition, arrangement, and use of knowledge.
  3. According to Gagne, cognitive is an internal process that occurs in the central nervous system when humans think.
  4. According to Piaget, cognitive is how children adapt and interpret objects and events around them.
  5. According to Drever, cognitive is a general term that covers the methods of understanding, namely perception, judgment, reasoning, imagination, and capturing meaning.
  6. According to Ahmad Susanto, cognitive is a thought process, namely the individual’s ability to relate, assess, and consider an event or events.
  7. According to Husdarta and Nurlan, cognitive development is a continuous process, but the results are not a continuation of the results that have been achieved before.

Types of Cognitive Ability

Broadly speaking, cognitive abilities can be divided into several types. An explanation of the types of cognitive abilities is as follows.

1. Cognitive Habits

In cognitive habits, an individual’s skills are usually related to the elaboration of knowledge and information collected by the senses. Some of the skills included in cognitive habits include the following.

a. Attention

Attention is a type of cognitive ability to maintain concentration on certain objects, actions or thoughts in the environment.

b. understanding

Understanding is the ability that allows us to translate sound or speech into words or in writing. This allows humans to be able to communicate with other humans

c. Elaboration

Elaboration is a form of the ability of our own thinking to respond to something we feel, namely in the form of a response.

d. Recovery

Recovery is the ability to memorize something that has been lived and becomes the basis. Until at a later stage we can recover what we have learned without the need for the relevant stimulus.

2. Metacognitive Skills

Metacognitive skills relate to the information processing system in a person’s self so as to enable the ability to think and speak. This skill allows someone to have control, explanation, transmission of living knowledge, and the formulation of the language to be used along with other complex ideas.



Examples of Cognitive Skills

Cognitive skills in each person can be assessed and recognized in different ways. Some examples of these cognitive skills are as follows.

1. Linguistic Ability

This linguistic skill allows a person to translate sounds in spoken form into words or writing. This ability includes syntax, lexicon, pragmatics, and others.

2. Mindfulness Capacity

This skill allows a person to have the ability to make perceptions beyond what other people feel and can even be far more aware of the little things that happen in the environment. These skills include concentration, attention, response speed, etc.

3. Capacity for Abstraction

The following skills enable one to construct and interpret complex sign systems and then translate them into concrete forms. These skills include spatial orientation, imagination, arithmetic reasoning, etc.

4. Deductive Capacity

The following skills enable one to infer and draw conclusions based on events which consist of several pieces of information. Someone will solve it imaginatively using imagination or according to what they feel or with intuition. These skills include logical reasoning, categorization, similarities and differences, intuitive reasoning, etc.

Cognitive Ability Development Phase

Cognitive abilities in a person also have stages. These stages or phases develop over time. The following are the phases of the development of cognitive abilities in humans.

1. Infancy

When born into the world, babies will begin to learn to use their senses to see the world around them. Newborn babies’ abilities are also limited, usually new babies can focus on following moving objects, feel differences in tone and volume, and begin to anticipate events, for example sucking when they see a nipple. After growing, around the age of three months, babies begin to be able to imitate the expressions of other people in front of them, such as smiling too.

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At the age of six months, babies begin to understand the world around them. They have started to imitate the sounds they hear, recognize their parents, and have a fear of strangers so they can cry because of this. They are also able to respond to something that happens, for example, if an object is dropped, they can pick it up again.

When babies are nine months old, they can already imitate the movements and actions of the people around them. They begin to understand simple words that people around them often use, such as “no,” and understand what those words mean.

By the time he is 12 months old, babies can follow moving objects, say two to four words, including calling their parents like “mama” and “papa”. In addition, babies can also imitate animal sounds, and can feel anxious when they are separated from their parents or the people closest to them so far.

Entering the age of 18 months, babies can understand quite a few words, which is around 10-50 words, identify body parts, and understand the ownership of objects by saying the word “I” to some of these objects.

2. Toddler

Toddlers are babies under five years, between 18 months to 3 years, toddlers have reached the ‘sensorimotor’ stage, namely sensory and motor functions. A toddler has started to be able to try to do various things independently, they also begin to be able to distinguish between appropriate and inappropriate behavior with the help of understanding the concepts of words such as “please” and “thank you” which were previously taught by their parents.

3. Preschool

Preschoolers , ages three to six, are in the ‘preoperational’ stage , or preoperational matters. In order to learn and memorize, they need to be preconditioned. Preschool children usually already have and develop their social skills while playing with friends their age. Other cognitive development in preschool children is having an increase in attention, reading, learning, and things that are a little more complex.

4. School age

School-aged children, namely six to 12 years, have started to use logical actions in thinking and solving problems. These children have also begun to be able to learn through their mistakes and are able to explain the causes and effects of some things that happen.

In adolescents aged 12 to 18 years, their level of independence has increased. They can already think of a way out based on the problems and situations that occur. Teenagers are also able to pursue some of the special skills needed for a job.



Key Aspects of Cognitive Development

A person’s cognitive ability is a manifestation of basic or primary abilities which, according to the Ministry of National Education, are as follows.

a. Language ability

Cognitive abilities in language aspects include several aspects such as reading, speaking, listening, and writing. The four are also very related because they cannot be separated from the others.

b. Memory ability

Cognitive abilities in the aspect of remembering occur when a person remembers information. It includes various things that an individual has learned in the past.

c. Reasoning ability

Cognitive ability in the aspect of reasoning is an important ability related to logic. With logic, one can distinguish between right and wrong.

d. Space view capability

Cognitive ability in the aspect of spatial relation ability is a person’s ability to imagine objects that are constructed through images in a pattern.

e. Number ability

Cognitive abilities in the aspect of numbers include a person’s ability to understand shapes, sequences, and numbers in solving problems.

f. Ability to use words

Cognitive abilities in the aspect of using words include a person’s ability to arrange words so that they are neat and understandable to the other person.

g. The ability to observe quickly and carefully

Cognitive ability in the aspect of observing quickly and carefully is a person’s ability to understand a problem by observing or observing first so that he can decide the problem carefully.

Factors Influencing Cognitive Development

The development of cognitive abilities in each individual is different. There are several factors that affect cognitive development in a child. These factors include:

a. Heredity / heredity factors

Heredity or hereditary factors will determine the development of a child in terms of intellectual. It can be said that heredity is the closest thing that will be related to the growth and development of a child. That is, most likely a child will think of his parents.

b. Environmental factor

Environmental factors can also be something that greatly affects a child’s cognitive abilities. There are two environmental factors that greatly influence children’s cognitive development, namely the family and school environment.

c. maturity factor

The maturity factor also means physical and psychological, it also means that the maturity factor is influenced by a person’s age. The maturity factor in a person is said to have agreed when they are able to carry out their respective functions.

d. formation factor

Formation factors in cognitive skills include all circumstances outside a person’s self that affect the development of intelligence. Formation factors are divided into two, namely intentional formation (formal school) and accidental formation (the influence of the natural environment).

e. Factors of interest and talent

Factors of interest and talent in a person’s cognitive development include a person’s talent that influences his intelligence. Someone who has an interest and talent for something will also find it easier to learn it.

f. Freedom factor

The freedom factor in cognitive development includes freedom in thinking, this means that everyone has freedom in choosing the method or method to be used in solving problems.

How to Improve Cognitive Ability

Cognitive abilities in a person can be improved in various ways. Some of these ways are as follows.

1. Physical Activity

Physical activity can have a major effect on the development of cognitive abilities in a person. This physical activity can also include games that hone motor skills. If a child has good motor skills, it is not uncommon for a child to also have better academic abilities such as reading and arithmetic. So, it can be concluded that various physical activities that involve motor performance have a good impact on improving children’s cognitive abilities.

2. Learn New Things

Learning new things can make children have good social relationships and keep them honed because they continue to enrich skills. Various activities that are not too binding will have a good impact on the human mind and brain. As we get older, the human brain also needs to be sharpened so that memory does not fade quickly.

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3. Curiosity and Creativity

Having high curiosity and creativity will shape children to participate in providing new innovations. One form of creativity that can be introduced to children is playing musical instruments. By playing music, children will more easily interpret and integrate various sensory information. Some creative activities are also proven to be able to stimulate the human brain to be able to maintain memory.

4. Social Connection

Creating social connections is important for a person’s cognitive development, because feelings of loneliness can actually trigger psychological and cognitive decline.

Several studies have even shown that feelings of isolation and lack of social connections can actually trigger sleep disturbances, increase blood pressure, increase stress hormones, and increase depression. Therefore, making social connections with the surrounding environment is important for cognitive growth.

5. Meditation

Meditation or focusing thoughts and feelings to achieve something is an activity that plays an important role in reducing stress and slowing the development of age-related cognitive disorders. As we get older, there is a high correlation between stress and Alzheimer’s disease, therefore practicing meditation can improve cognitive growth.

6. Brain Training Games

Some games or games that train the brain can also sharpen one’s cognitive abilities. Some games involving learning and memory as well as problem-solving puzzles may contribute to preventing or delaying the onset of Alzheimer’s disease in some people. Games that train the brain can also improve reasoning and thinking processing speed.

7. Enough Sleep

Not only work, the brain also needs adequate rest. When sleeping, the brain will master a new task. It is an intensive activity for the brain to consolidate learning so that the brain can benefit from sleep because of the abundance of available energy.

Sleep is not only a waste of time, it is also beneficial because of the degree of reorganization that the brain undergoes during sleep. Poor sleep quality is precisely related to important processes in human performance.



Application in the Workplace

There are several specific ways to use cognitive abilities at work, namely:

1. Identify Patterns

You can combine your logic and reasoning skills with your memory skills to recognize patterns. This trend might show up in the data, or it might be a recurring result that you recognize at work. Realizing that sales increase after certain marketing initiatives. By realizing the causes of increased sales, then you can use the same pattern.

2. Resource Analysis

After identifying patterns, the next step to accentuate cognitive abilities in the world of work is resource analysis. In this case, what is meant by resource analysis is that we must recognize the capabilities we have, so that we can carry out and complete the work optimally and on time. If a job can be completed optimally and on time, then the leadership will feel happy and most likely it will be easy to get promoted.

Apart from that, you also have to develop your skills so that you always find a solution to a problem quickly. Several ways can be done to develop skills, such as analyzing various things, making critical questions, and so on.

3. Focus on something to do

Use self-help cognitive abilities to focus, thus enabling you to handle tasks more productively. By focusing effectively on a particular project, you can complete it more quickly and more accurately, allowing yourself to move on to other tasks. Apart from that, staying focused can also help you to get into more meetings, actively listen to colleagues, and work with goals and achievements.

How to Emphasize Cognitive Abilities When Looking for a Job

Apart from using your cognitive skills at work, you can also use your cognitive abilities while looking for work, so that it can help you become a more attractive candidate. The following are some ways to display your cognitive abilities when looking for a new position:

1. Cognitive Ability for CV

A well-written and well-structured CV can represent strong cognitive abilities. Clean structure and spacing define your visual processing abilities. For example, when you target summaries and objective statements to the details in a job posting, you can display logic and reasoning skills that demonstrate how you can contribute to the company’s mission. In addition, you can also include cognitive strengths such as problem solving and active listening in the areas of your abilities.

Example: “Professional educator with experience teaching and educating elementary school (SD) students for three years. Analyze the behavior of students and provide learning materials based on characteristics that suit students.”

2. Cognitive Ability for Application Letters

The cover letter requires that you professionally address the potential employer, creatively present yourself as the right candidate for the job and describe how you can benefit the company. When you meet these requirements through a written cover letter, then you have demonstrated the ability to solve problems creatively, which in turn demonstrates your strong logic and reasoning abilities.

Example: “I always appreciate every planning session that is carried out with the team that I form, because in these sessions, I can share innovative ideas with others and I can collaborate to create the best product designs. Every time I make a product design, I definitely analyze data from designs that have previously been tested in order to show that there is potential value in certain visuals, so that customers can be interested in the product designs we make.”

3. Cognitive Ability for Job Interviews

Interviews allow you to present many opportunities to display cognitive abilities. When answering questions, you can showcase your memory skills by referring research to the company or the original job description. You can demonstrate your attentiveness by actively listening and responding to the interviewer. You can also demonstrate logic and reasoning skills by solving hypothetical problems that may be presented by the interviewer.

Example: “I understand that the company organizes a marketing conference every year to bring together professionals from various fields of the industry. This conference will give me valuable insight into what other companies are doing to meet their customer needs as well as the creative solutions they have found to increase brand loyalty.”




Based on the explanation above, we can see that the cognitive skills of each person are different. Cognitive abilities are also divided into several types of skills. By studying cognitive abilities, we come to understand that everyone’s needs and approaches to developing their cognitive abilities are also different.

However, even though everyone has different cognitive abilities, of course we as parents can take closer steps to support the development of children’s cognitive abilities.

So, that’s a complete explanation of cognitive abilities in thinking along with their types, stages of development, main aspects, and how to improve cognitive abilities in children, which is expected to help Sinaumed’s get more in-depth information.

If Sinaumed’s has an interest in studying cognitive abilities in children, you can learn them by reading references on the internet and available books that you can get on the official website with various choices.