Campaign: Definition, Types, and Techniques

Campaigns are one of the activities that often occur in this world, including in our country, Indonesia. In Indonesia alone, campaigns usually occur once every five years when a leader changes. When that moment occurred, the people who were running for election, be it the mayoral election, the regent, the DPR, to the President all simultaneously carried out a campaign to gain as much support as possible from various circles of society.

Not only campaigning on the streets, these politicians also campaign on television, social media, appear on YouTube, to rent large stadiums with a capacity of thousands of people such as the Gelora Bung Karno Stadium or GBK to campaign. Usually the higher the level of the election, the bigger the scale of the campaign. For example, the 2019 presidential or presidential elections.

You remember, how excited the moment was. Not only were the streets filled with banners, billboards and flags bearing the symbols of the parties supporting each presidential candidate, but on social media the supporters were no less excited.

Unfortunately, campaigns that should be an arena to seek votes and be carried out peacefully, often turn into an arena for heated debates between supporters and turn into an arena for accusing and slandering one another. The sad thing is, on social media, the people are even divided into two camps.

Talking about campaigns, you must have seen people campaigning. You may also have participated in a campaign in one of the general elections that have been held in Indonesia. However, do you actually know the true meaning of the campaign itself? Not know? Here’s the explanation!

Campaigns Are a Form of Communication

As previously discussed, campaigns are activities that are quite common in Indonesia. Not only do we see people campaigning, we even occasionally participate in campaigns to support a candidate, be it a candidate for mayor, governor, or president. Usually, when campaigning people will wear various attributes related to the candidate we support.

Starting from campaign t-shirts which are often distributed free of charge by the party, hats, to scarves. Everything is used, to show our support for someone. However, regardless of whether you have joined the campaign or not, do you know the meaning of the campaign itself?

Basically, a campaign is communication between one or several specific people with the aim of influencing many people. During political campaigns, for example, prospective leaders will usually deliver speeches, promises, and the results of their thoughts in front of many people. The goal is only one, to strengthen support and so that there are more and more people who support it to reach a certain position.

Campaigns are usually only carried out by one person and usually this activity is only carried out by those who nominate themselves. The goal is for more and more people to know and believe in it, and support it. However, behind a candidate, there are many more people working behind the scenes to win over that candidate.

Not infrequently party members also hook the people to help campaign in the area where they live so that people in that area will also support the candidate for the leader that is carried out by the party.

Campaign Types

So far, campaigns have only been identified with politics. Yes, compared to other groups, people from political parties are the ones who carry out campaign activities the most.

But actually, the campaign can not only be done by people who come from the political elite. Everyone can do the same thing, because basically a campaign is an activity of communicating to influence more people to get a certain goal or position.

This type of campaign is not just a political campaign. For those of you who don’t know, the actual campaign also varies and is divided into several types. So how many types of campaigns are there actually? Let’s find out together!

Goal-Based Campaigns

Every decision, or activity carried out must have its own purpose. So is the campaign. Based on the purpose, the campaign itself is divided into four types, namely social campaigns , whisper campaigns , promotional campaigns , and the last is political campaigns . For more details, here is the meaning of these campaigns!

Social Campaign

Social campaigns are campaigns whose purpose is to spread social messages that are unprofitable or non-commercial in nature. People who carry out social campaigns do not get any benefit from the campaign they are doing, and they also don’t want anything from the campaign.

Social campaigns usually arise from personal unrest and aim to increase public awareness of various social problems that are currently happening.

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For example, campaigns about waste, especially plastic waste, are currently being carried out. This plastic waste campaign aims to reduce the current plastic waste so that the Earth can be a better place without garbage around us.

People who do this campaign, do not get any benefit. On the other hand, it is not uncommon for him to spend a lot of capital so that campaigns like this can run and public awareness can be higher.

Whisper Campaign

Whisper in Indonesian itself means to speak in a low voice, so that only certain people can hear it, while a campaign is a communication activity carried out by a person or a group to gather support from more people.

If these two definitions are put together, then a whisper campaign is an action carried out simultaneously to fight something. To prevent this action from being detected, information and calls to action are carried out by broadcasting hearsay.

Promotional Campaign

If a social campaign is non-commercial in nature and the person doing it doesn’t get any benefit, a promotional campaign is just the opposite.

Promotional campaigns are activities carried out in order to increase sales. Usually promotional campaigns are carried out by product companies to boost sales. This action is clearly done to get as much profit as possible. The more profit, the better.

Political Campaign

So, we have discussed this campaign since earlier. Basically, a political campaign is a campaign that is carried out to many people or the general public to share various information about the candidate for the leader that is carried by a party.

The information itself usually consists of messages, thoughts, and programs that will be made by prospective leaders if they succeed in advancing to power. Political campaigns are carried out by politicians and parties during the change of leadership in the government.

The campaign was carried out to attract as many supporters as possible. The more supporters, the more votes will be obtained during the general election. Unfortunately, it is not uncommon for this political campaign to be carried out in a dirty and dishonest way.

Campaign Based on Orientation

Apart from campaigns based on their type, campaigns are also differentiated based on their orientation. For this one, campaigns are divided into three types, namely product-oriented campaigns , candidate-oriented campaigns , ideological or cause-oriented campaigns . Here’s the full explanation!

Product Oriented Campaigns

Product Oriented Campaign is an activity carried out by a company for commercial purposes. As the name implies, this campaign is oriented towards the products made by the company.

The objectives of the campaign itself vary. In addition to boosting sales of a product, this campaign is also carried out by a company in order to build an image.

Again, with a good corporate image, the public’s response to a product will also be good, so that it is expected to increase sales of these products in the future.

Candidate-Oriented Campaign

If the first campaign is product oriented, then the Candidate-Oriented Campaign is person-oriented. This type of campaign is usually carried out for political purposes and aims to gain support from the wider community.

Ideological or Cause Oriented Campaigns

This type of campaign can be considered unique because it is not oriented to a person or product. When compared to the previous two campaigns, this campaign is not aimed at making a profit. Whether it’s political gain, or money.

Ideological or Cause Oriented Campaign is a campaign that has a clear goal of changing a rule in society that has been rooted for a long time. This campaign involves all groups and is carried out by social institutions without expecting any profit.

Campaign Based on Media

As you know, a person or company or a group organization that is campaigning will do a lot to achieve their goals. One way is to appear in a lot of media. The following are the types of campaigns based on the media used!

Live Campaign

As the name implies, direct campaigns are a type of campaign that is carried out live and face to face. In this campaign, the main character, candidate or candidate will attend and meet the community to convey programs and messages to attract community support.

This type of campaign, usually, is carried out in stadiums, fields, buildings or places that can be accessed by everyone. Usually the candidate will go on stage and speak in front of many people.

Apart from being carried out in places that can be accessed by many people, it is not uncommon for candidates to also do blusukan alias going down to outskirt or remote areas to meet the community. This activity was carried out to attract support from people who are difficult to reach because of their location far from the city center. Unlike campaigns in stadiums, blusukan campaigns are usually only carried out by the candidate and some of his closest people.

Electronic Campaign

If the campaign is direct, the candidates will meet their supporters in real time , then the electronic campaign is carried out by utilizing electronic media.

In the past, this campaign was only carried out via television and radio. As time goes by, technology and smartphones are getting more sophisticated. Now, candidates don’t just appear on TV or radio, they also appear on various YouTube channels and podcasts .

In Indonesia, campaigns using media in the form of YouTube and podcasts are carried out to attract support for young people, considering that young people are the ones who access YouTube and podcasts the most .

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Print Campaign

After direct campaigns and electronic media, campaigns are also carried out through print media. Although considered a bit out of date, print media campaigns are quite common in Indonesia.

In the past, campaigns were carried out by posting campaign messages and candidate photos in newspapers. Now, political parties use posters, leaflets, brochures, and even put up billboards with pictures of candidates and their programs in the city center and strategic places that are passed by many people. The goal is for the candidate to be better known by the public from all walks of life.

Techniques in Conducting Campaigns

For us ordinary people or people who have never participated in a campaign, then maybe it’s just about speaking or speaking in front of many people to spread their influence. Even so, conducting a campaign also cannot be arbitrary. The campaign must also have a technique so that the end result can be satisfying. Here are some techniques in conducting campaigns.

1. Participation

A candidate who has good communication, will not just talk and let the audience just be listeners. Instead of forcing the audience to be listeners, they will also let the audience participate. This participation itself usually allows the audience to speak and be heard by the candidate.

In a way, participation is a basic technique in campaigning, especially if the campaign being carried out is a face-to-face campaign or in person and involves a large crowd as an audience or listener.

Although at first glance, this technique is so simple, but the effect is excellent and can enhance the candidate’s image. The audience will feel very valued because they are not only forced to listen but are also given the opportunity to be heard and convey their grievances.

Candidates who perform this technique well will give the impression that he is a good leader because he is willing to listen to the people.

2. Association

Besides participation, association is also a technique that is no less important. This technique is a technique in which the candidate relates an event that often occurs in his campaign to attract the attention of the public.

Usually the events that occur are major events that harm many people. The candidates will share their point of view as well as the solution to the problem. This technique can be said to be very powerful, because apart from being able to increase public confidence, it can also be a weapon to reduce public trust in other candidates who become opponents.

3. Integrative

Integrative is a technique where the candidate will involve the audience . Not only by letting them become listeners, candidates will also use words like we, us, and other words that show similarities between the audience and the candidates. Apart from showing similarities, these words aim to unite all parties in the same vision and mission.

4. Reward Techniques

Reward technique is a technique in which candidates influence the audience by giving gifts or rewards . Compared to other techniques, this reward technique is actually a bit tricky .

In Indonesia itself, this technique is still often done even though it is secretly. Usually the reward itself is in the form of basic necessities such as vegetable oil, rice, and various other needs. But this technique can also be referred to as bribery.

5. Provide Empathy

This technique is also common in campaigns. Usually candidates will try to understand and put themselves in the position of the audience . Not only that, they also usually offer sympathy either words or help needed.

The goal is to build a good image in front of the audience . With a good image , the audience will choose the candidate in the election.

6. Ice Sculpture Setup

In this technique, the candidate will make a speech using words that are pleasing to the ear, so that those who hear them feel comfortable. They will also use good descriptions and describe various good programs that he will carry out when he takes office. This is to foster public trust in order to support it.

7. Coercion

In a way, this is the worst technique in conducting campaigns. This is because this technique involves an element of coercion. The candidate will put pressure on society to get them to support him. This made people feel very uncomfortable and frightened. Even if they do offer support, they do so out of compulsion.

Running a campaign looks easy at first glance. However, this is actually difficult to do. The hardest part wasn’t gathering the people, but getting them to believe and finally vote for someone.