Understanding Social Gaps: Forms, Factors, Impacts, and Solutions

Definition of Social Disparity – Social disparity is a condition where there are things that are not balanced in the life of the community. Either personally or as a group. Where there is social inequality that is formed from an unfair distribution of many things that are considered important by society.

The gap is often associated with the existence of a form of difference that is very real and can be seen in terms of community finances, such as property wealth. Especially for the gap in the economy. Now it is very easy to see from the potential and opportunities that are not equal in the social position in society.

In addition to the above, the gap can also be seen from the existence of inequality between goods, services, laws, and opportunities obtained by each individual.

Understanding Social Gap According to Experts

So that we better understand what social inequality means. So the author will provide complete information about the meaning of social disparity from the experts. Read the explanation to the end.

1. Robert Chambers

Chambers revealed that social disparities are all symptoms that occur at all levels of society. This symptom appears due to financial or economic differences between communities in certain regions.

2. According to KBBI

If you look at the KBBI (Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia) then the meaning of social gap is imbalance, difference, and also the gap that is present in the social order.

3. Wikipedia

When referring to Wikipedia, social disparity is all things related to inequality in terms of wealth, income, and also the economy.

This will later present a gap between the rich and the poor. Where it refers to the distribution of the measure of wealth or economy within the community.

Factors Caused by Social Disparities

There are various factors that cause social disparity. Here are the factors you need to understand.

1. Differences in Natural Resources

One of the factors that cause social and economic disparity is the strength of natural resources in the regions. Because, the economic level of a region can be affected by the availability of its natural resources. The economic level of a society can increase when its natural resources are managed in the right way.

2. Government Policy

Government policy can be an important factor in social disparity. Because, in taking decisions made by the government can create a gap in society. For example, the gap in the field of transmigration programs. Where the immigrant community will grow faster compared to the native community of the area.

This happens because the opportunities and opportunities available are greater given to transmigrants. Therefore, a social and economic gap was created in society.

3. Influence of Globalization

In addition to being able to be used to advance the common economy. Globalization can also create social and economic disparities in society. The gap appears when some communities are unable to adapt to globalization. So that they will be left behind and not get what others get.

4. Demographic Conditions

The demographic conditions of each region can be influenced by the level of community growth, health, education, and employment. That way, of course each region will have different geographical conditions. This is what will later create a social gap. Because, the work productivity of each member of the community in various regions is certainly not the same.

5. Location and Geographical Conditions

This condition will generally affect the development process in the area. Generally, communities living in highland areas will find it difficult to develop infrastructure compared to communities living in lowlands.

Therefore, it will cause communities living in the lowlands to grow faster. However, the communities in the highlands will find it difficult to grow. This is what will later cause social disparity.

The Impact of Social Gaps

As we know, that social gap is something bad. So, the resulting impact is also bad for the well-being of the community. The following are some of the impacts of social disparity.

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1. Unemployment and Poverty

Social disparity can be seen from the rise in poverty and unemployment every year. If a country is dominated by poor and unemployed people, then the country’s income will definitely be very low.

This happens because the purchasing power of the community will decrease. Because, they do not have a certain income. This condition can cause the company’s profit to be suboptimal.

2. The target market is not clear

Not only creating poverty and unemployment. Social gaps can also affect the target market of a business. This will make the target market of business owners unclear.

If the company has a target market of the middle class and below. Of course that will make the company suffer a loss. This happens because the purchasing power of the community tends to be uncertain.

However, if the company has a target market for the upper middle class. That will not necessarily make the company profitable. Because, in general, the upper middle class people prefer foreign products.

4. Scarcity of Competent Workforce

Although Indonesia has a lot of unemployment, there are still many companies that find it difficult to find competent workers. The presence of social disparity in society also affects the quality of education of its citizens. In Indonesia itself, there are many people whose education is below average.

But there is no denying that there are quite a few scholars in Indonesia. However, the fact is that many of them do not yet have the skills required by companies in Indonesia. Especially for the inexperienced.

4. The Rise of Crime Cases

In our country Indonesia, crime cases are high. Even recently, many crimes have come from hackers. Where it is detrimental to some large companies. Because, these hackers succeeded in hacking important data.

The high level of crime is in line with the high level of social disparity that occurs. This is certainly not far from economic or financial problems. As we know that the economy is one of the biggest factors that can make someone commit a crime.

Various Forms of Social Gap

The following are various forms of social inequality. There are five types of forms that often occur in society. Below is a complete explanation.

1. Gap Between Village and City

The social gap that occurs in villages and cities is caused by several factors. One of the most influential factors is the geographical condition and also the typology of the village which is less favorable.

This happens because the livelihood of the people in the village does not have many other alternatives, as is the case in the city. For example, the majority of people living in mountainous areas will work as farmers and traders. Because, they only have a source of income from the garden. Where the garden they have will give a harvest. Then they can use the harvest to eat or resell.

While the development program still prioritizes the industrial sector in urban areas. So that the agricultural sector in the village becomes more and more degraded and left behind. The merchants and farmers in the village only get a small profit from their harvest.

The profits they get will later be used to meet their daily needs. Therefore, the level of poverty in the village is much higher compared to the urban community.

In addition, the lack of job alternatives available in the village also affects the economy of the village community. They finally decided to find another job in the city. In order to get a bigger income.

2. Disparity in the quality of human resources

As explained above, education is one of the important factors in community development. Especially for the field of human resources. Where with a good education, a person can improve their social status and make their life more prosperous. However, not all communities can obtain quality education.

Well, there is also a gap in education between rural and urban communities. Where the education in the city is more quality and easy to access. While the community in the village still has difficulty in getting quality education. Moreover, the infrastructure and communication network in the village is still very minimal. Therefore, it creates a social gap in the field of education and the quality of human resources.

Rural communities that do not obtain quality education will certainly lose out to the city communities. Their chances and potential to get a job are also very small. So that they will find it difficult to improve the well-being of their families.

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3. Economic Gap Between Community Groups

There are several factors that cause economic disparity. One of them is uneven development between regions. In addition, the decrease in per capita income due to population growth can also affect the economic disparity. This happens because population growth that is too high will affect the level of productivity.

With uneven development. Then there will be people who have difficulty in obtaining basic services. Starting from education, health, clean water, and also sanitation.
As discussed above, that the quality of education can influence the quality of a person or human resources. People who do not have skills will be stuck in jobs with low income. Therefore, they will have difficulty in getting a better life.

In addition, the high rate of population growth can also make it more difficult for people to find jobs. This can be exacerbated by the influence of urbanization which can cause uneven population distribution.

That way, there will be many rural people who decide to go and find work in the city. They are desperate to find a job in the city with their basic skills. But hope to be able to improve the well-being of life by working in the city.

However, with the large number of competitors from the city, it will make the village community lose and be eliminated. These conditions will eventually make them have a worse fate than before.

4. Private Asset Spread Gap

Assets are one form of wealth owned by a company or individual. The wealth can be in the form of buildings, cash, production machinery, or power rights.

Until now, the assets owned by business entities are still very concentrated in businesses with a large scale. In fact, the workforce available in Indonesia mostly works in small to medium micro businesses.

This will cause small and medium businesses to become difficult to grow. In fact, there are many micro businesses that end up going bankrupt due to lack of capital and assets.

5. Gaps between regions and subregions

Have you ever visited a region that still has limited facilities? For example, the region still lacks lighting, internet signal, clean water, transportation, and also online pick-up services. Meanwhile, you already live in an area that has such accesses. Surely you will feel how difficult it is to live with a lack of everything, right? Well, that usually happens in remote areas.

Actually, uneven development is caused by several things. Starting from geographical conditions and natural and human resources. As a result, each region has different development capabilities and this is what causes social disparity.

Solutions to Overcome Social Gaps in Towns and Villages

As we know that the most visible social gap is the comparison between rural and urban communities. The existence of differences in the fields of education, economy, facilities, and natural resources causes social disparities to appear. Where the city community seems to be more advanced, while the rural community is difficult to develop.

In addition, the economic disparity that exists in urban communities can also occur due to social and geographical factors in the region. Where rural conditions are not favorable for the community. Then, another thing that causes the economic gap to occur is because of the tradition and kinship that exists in the village community.

So, the village community internally needs to open up to the outside world. They cannot refuse and feel alienated by all the changes that happen. Although preserving culture is something that must be done, the community must also have a clear vision. So that they can gain the initiative to change their own destiny.

Without the spirit to change the mindset that has been embedded in the village community. They will certainly find it difficult to progress and develop. In addition, they will also find it difficult to compete with the city community.

In addition, the government must also be able to make a policy that is outside the community. The policy includes:

1. The government should focus on encouraging the improvement and improvement of rural infrastructure. Especially for villages that have unfavorable geographical conditions
2. The government needs to prioritize access to education as well as information and village health.
3. The government should provide capital for rural communities so that they have income or other income. So that there are other alternatives besides the agricultural sector. With that help, it will certainly help the community because they can set up their own businesses.
4. The government should actively carry out segregation in rural communities

Well, that’s some explanation about the social gap and the factors that affect it. As a modern generation, of course we need to pay attention to that. So that later, the social gap will be easier to reduce. Especially now, globalization is worldwide. So that we must be ready to face competition on an international scale.