Rights and Obligations to the Environment – Rights and obligations to the environment have been regulated and stipulated in such a way in laws or state regulations. As part of human rights, people have the right to a good and healthy environment. It’s just that, society also has obligations that must be carried out towards the environment.
A well-known figure from India, namely Mahatma Gandhi once said, “What we do to the world’s forests is a reflection or picture of what we do for ourselves and for one another.
In general, the environment refers to a place where all living and non-living things live and develop feelings of attraction to one another. The environment basically has helped many humans to be able to establish relationships with what is in it, including flora and fauna. This is also what ultimately determines the formation and survival of humans.
Consciously or unknowingly, the environment has provided many things for humans, such as water, sunlight, air, animals, plants, to fossil fuels that make this planet suitable for living. However, the feeling of wanting to own completely and taking it actually results in the emergence of many environmental problems.
Humans actually get rights as well as obligations to the environment. Therefore, in order to obtain their rights, humans must also protect the environment, respect the environment and use natural resources rationally. Do not forget too, humans as part of living things must take important steps to prevent pollution to promote the sustainable use of raw materials and natural resources.
In this article, sinaumedia.com will discuss rights and obligations towards the environment. This discussion is important for every individual to know and understand so that environmental sustainability can be maintained. Here’s the full review!
What are the rights and obligations towards the environment?
1. Right to the Environment
According to an article published by the Inovatif Journal entitled “Environmental Rights and Their Relation to Participation in Environmental Management in the Perspective of Regional Autonomy”, Law Number 32 of 2009 has regulated various community rights to the environment and management of their living environment.
Article 65 regulates five rights to the environment, including:
- Everyone has the right to a good and healthy environment as a human right.
- Everyone has the right to environmental education, access to information, access to participation, and access to justice in fulfilling the right to a good and healthy environment.
- Everyone has the right to submit suggestions and/or objections to business plans and/or activities that are expected to have an impact on the environment.
- Everyone has the right to play a role in protecting and managing the environment in accordance with laws and regulations.
- Everyone has the right to file a complaint due to allegations of environmental pollution and/or damage.
2. Obligations to the Environment
Regulation of the right to the environment itself is contained in Law Number 32 of 2009, followed by regulation of obligations to the environment.
Meanwhile, Article 67 of Law Number 32 of 2009 stipulates that everyone has the obligation to maintain the preservation of environmental functions and control environmental pollution and/or damage.
The provisions in Article 67 contain two obligations to the environment, namely (1) the obligation to maintain the preservation of environmental functions and (2) the obligation to control environmental pollution and/or damage.
Furthermore, regarding the preservation of environmental functions based on Article 1 point 6 contains a meaning related to efforts to maintain the continuity of the carrying capacity and carrying capacity of the environment. The second form of obligation is directly related to efforts not to ignore the occurrence of pollution or environmental damage.
Regulations concerning Rights and Obligations towards the Environment
In accordance with what has been written in the 1945 Constitution, it is determined regarding the rights and obligations of citizens starting from articles 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, and 34. These articles read:
- Article 27 paragraph (1), stipulates equal rights of citizens in law and government, as well as the obligation to uphold law and government.
- Article 27 paragraph (2) stipulates the rights of citizens to work and a decent living for humanity.
- Article 27 paragraph (3), in amendments to the 1945 Constitution stipulates the rights and obligations of citizens to participate in defending the State.
- Article 28 stipulates the freedom rights of its citizens to associate, assemble, express thoughts orally and in writing.
- Article 29 paragraph (2) states that citizens have the freedom right to embrace their own religion and to worship according to their religion.
- Article 30 paragraph (1), in the second amendment to the 1945 Constitution states the rights and obligations of citizens to participate in efforts to defend and secure the State.
- Article 31 paragraph (1), that every citizen has the right to receive education.
Facts about the Environment in Indonesia
Sinaumed’s needs to know that recently Indonesia is facing serious environmental problems, one might even call it an emergency. Starting from global warming, sea pollution, deforestation, and air pollution. So, here are some facts about environmental problems in Indonesia, including:
1. Global warming
Source of emission amount per year:
- Coal burning reaches 9 billion tonnes of Co2 (emissions)
- Land conversion and forest destruction 2.563 billion tonnes of Co2e
- Activities and use of energy, agriculture and waste 451 million tonnes of Co2 2.
2. Marine pollution
Pollution source percentage:
- Domestic waste 75%
- Office waste & commercial areas 15%
- Industrial waste 10%
Causes of marine pollution
- Industrial waste
- Ship painting
- Household waste
- Port and shipping activities
Deforestation or deforestation is an activity of cutting down forests along with tree stands so that the land can be used for non-forest uses, such as agriculture and plantations, animal husbandry, or settlements. Environmental problems that exist in Indonesia itself are believed to originate from reduced forests. The following is data on forest area in Indonesia:
- 2009-2011 —– 901,000 hectares (ha)
- 2011-2012 —– 613,480 ha
- 2012-2013 —– 728,100 ha
- 2013-2014 —– 397,400 ha
- 2014-2015 —– 901,300 ha
4. Air pollution
In 2012, there were 165,000 deaths caused by air pollution. Furthermore, according to 2016 WHO data, the capital city of Jakarta and the city of Bandung are included in the category of ten cities with the worst air pollution in Southeast Asia.
Meanwhile, based on data from Greenpeace Indonesia in the first half of 2016, Jakarta’s air pollution level can be categorized as very worrying. This category is at the level of 4.5 times the WHO threshold. In fact, the air of the two words is three times larger than the standard set by the Indonesian government.
Examples of Obligations to the Environment
In terms of rights and obligations to the environment, there are several actions that are the responsibility of the Indonesian people in protecting and preserving the environment, including:
1. Throw Trash in its Place
When someone does not dispose of trash in its place, what happens is that there will be a lot of trash scattered in various places. The trash will then become a nest for flies, cockroaches, rats and various other animals. Some of these animals can become one of various diseases.
In addition, garbage that is not in its place can contaminate water sources. As a result, water becomes unfit for consumption which will lead to the emergence of various diseases, such as typhus, dengue fever, and tuberculosis.
Therefore, Indonesian people need to get used to sorting waste based on its type. Garbage itself is categorized into two types, namely organic and inorganic. Organic waste is waste that is directly produced by nature, such as leaves, vegetables and fruits. This organic waste will be used as the main ingredient of compost. Meanwhile, inorganic waste is waste that is generated non-biologically. For example, plastic, glass, paper, and so forth.
2. Don’t Cut Trees Recklessly
As discussed earlier, increasingly here Indonesia’s forests are experiencing a reduction in land area that is quite fast. Even though the forest and its trees have a very important role in maintaining the continuity of all creatures on earth. In addition to being a source of water, trees are also a source of oxygen. Therefore, protecting trees is the same as maintaining the continuity of all life on earth, including humans. Of course not only keeping the trees, but also planting as many trees as possible.
3. Don’t Hunt Random Animals
One of the obligations of humans towards the environment that is rarely realized is the indiscriminate hunting of animals. We need to know that several types of animals have become extinct from the face of this earth caused by indiscriminate hunting. Meanwhile, there are still many animals that are categorized as endangered. Actually, every animal on earth has its own function. Therefore, careless hunting of animals will change and destroy the environment.
4. Reducing the Use of Chemicals
In the modern era like now, the advancement of science has made various human activities depend on one thing, one of which is chemicals. Without realizing it, chemicals are known to turn out to be one of the substances that can be very dangerous for humans, for example chemicals that are not treated properly.
Such is the case in the Citarum River, West Java. The Citarum River was once called the dirtiest river in Indonesia. The nickname is basically due to the large number of chemicals that come from the disposal of textile factory waste in the vicinity. Meanwhile, many people still have the habit of throwing garbage into the river. Damage that has occurred due to these chemicals takes a long time to return to normal conditions.
5. Reducing Vehicle Use
Humans basically need healthy and clean air to breathe. A clean air can be breathed freely without the presence of particles such as dust or toxic substances. It’s just that, the world is getting more and more advanced and quickly producing human habits to use vehicles, such as motorbikes, cars, and so on. The smoke from vehicles that blends with the air has a very bad impact on the human respiratory system.
Therefore, in an effort to realize healthy and clean air, people need to reduce the use of vehicles as one of the causes of air pollution. In addition, the government as a policy maker needs to make a number of rules to keep the air healthy and clean. In various countries, policies have begun to be implemented to improve public transportation in the hope that people can further reduce their activities using private vehicles.
Simple Activities to Preserve the Environment
In addition to the rights and obligations to the environment above that must be fulfilled, there are several simple ways that can have an effective impact on environmental sustainability. So, here are five simple activities that can make Sinaumed’s participate in protecting and preserving the environment.
1. Eat Local Food
By eating local food, we will indirectly help reduce existing carbon emissions. This is due to reduced transportation costs for these foodstuffs to move. In addition, local food is also easier to obtain and at a more affordable price, of course.
Local food is also known to have far more nutritional content than non-local food. Local food tends to be natural and has very little risk of being mixed with harmful substances.
2. Reducing the Use of Single-Use Plastics
Plastic is a very practical item to use. In addition, plastic is also very cheap. It is not surprising that many people have the habit of using single-use plastic. If it has been used once, then the plastic can be thrown away. However, there is a very big danger when there is excessive use of plastic. These hazards include damage to the environment, from water to air.
Recently, it has been found that many animals are polluted by plastic in their digestive systems. This of course will be very dangerous if it enters the human body. Therefore, reducing the use of single-use plastic is one small and important step that must be taken. By starting from yourself, there is potential for plastic waste to be reduced in the future.
3. Decorate the House with Plants
The activity of decorating homes with plants has become popular after yesterday’s pandemic. This activity is certainly very good for increasing the knowledge and understanding of a human being for a green lifestyle. Plants themselves are creatures that can absorb carbon emissions and various air pollutants.
Having plants at home not only makes the house look greener, but can also improve air circulation. This will make the house cooler and healthier. Even though it includes very small and simple actions, someone who decorates his house with plants can contribute to reducing the impact of global warming.
In planting do not have to use certain plants that require special care. There are many plants that are good for home health and of course easy to care for, such as mother-in-law’s tongue, aloe vera, and waves of love. Sinaumed’s only needs to leave three or four places in the house for ornamental plants, so Sinaumed’s’ house and environment will be healthier and fresher.
4. Update news online
Finally, an important simple step to take to preserve the environment is to read the news using a smartphone. The use of this device actually helps to reduce paper usage. Indirectly, we will also support environmental care. Moreover, in this era of technological advances, news can easily be obtained using the paperless method.
This is a review of the rights and obligations to the environment that we need to understand.