Inventor of the Thermometer – Today, who is not familiar with a temperature measuring device that is often used to check our body temperature, the thermometer. Almost all parents will immediately look for a thermometer when their child is experiencing a high fever and adults will do the same thing when holding a body that turns out to be hot. Without a thermometer, it will be difficult for us to know our body temperature, so we can endanger ourselves.
Thanks to its important uses, almost everyone will have a thermometer in their house. Basically, there are many types of thermometers, but what humans often use when they want to check their body temperature is a mercury thermometer. As the name suggests, the thermometer that is often used by humans is coated with glass so that the mercury in it. With coated glass, when using a thermometer there is no need to worry if mercury will come out of the glass.
However, some people are confused about why a thermometer can be used to measure room temperature, air temperature, and human temperature. Things like this are not a big problem. Basically, this temperature measuring device has been around since the time of the Romans. After that, along with the times, the companion of the thermometer continues to experience development.
Therefore, we need to read this article about thermometers to the end so that our insights about thermometers increase.
Meaning of thermometer
The word thermometer consists of two words, namely thermo and meter, termo comes from the Latin, namely thermo which means heat and meter can be interpreted as to measure. Therefore, a thermometer is a tool for measuring body heat or checking changes in body temperature (cold or hot). This is in line with the meaning of a thermometer according to the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), namely a temperature measuring device.
Almost everyone has a thermometer or body temperature measuring device. The thermometer that is often used by many people, especially in the world of health, is a mercury thermometer. Making a thermometer can be said to use a concept that objects in nature will expand or increase in size because the temperature of the object has increased. By using this concept, the temperature of the thermometer will increase (hot temperature).
The number of people who use a mercury thermometer to measure their body temperature is not without reason, the price is relatively cheap when compared to other types of thermometers. Even though the price is relatively affordable, the level of accuracy (to check body temperature) cannot be doubted.
The thermometer itself consists of a capillary tube which is usually made of glass and this section serves as a storage reservoir. As we know that humans often use mercury thermometers. This is because mercury has a uniqueness in that the color of the water can be shiny, so that body temperature can be seen, whether it is normal temperature or hot temperature.
Not only that, mercury also has several advantages, such as the temperature of the mercury will quickly react to the object or body being measured; mercury can measure the temperature from the lowest to the highest; purification of mercury is very regular.
However, to measure the freezing point temperature, an alcohol thermometer is superior because it can measure freezing points down to -130 degrees Celsius. Meanwhile, mercury is only able to measure the freezing point down to -40 degrees Celsius.
When humans experience a rise in body temperature or when held, the body feels warm or hot, indicating that the health condition is being disturbed. If you experience something like this, you should immediately go to the doctor to find out your health condition. The sooner you get treatment, the body’s health can return more quickly.
The mercury in the thermometer is a liquid, so when the temperature changes, the water reacts. We can see this when cooking boiling water, the water will release bubbles indicating that the water is already at a hot temperature. Likewise, with the mercury in the thermometer, the water will react in the form of leading to a higher temperature.
The scale on a mercury thermometer starts from 35 degrees Celsius to 42 degrees Celsius. In addition, the thermometer will show the number 37 in red, why is only the number 37 red? This is because 37 degrees Celsius is the limit temperature of the human body. If when using a thermometer, the mercury shows or stops above 37, then it is included in a hot body temperature. This applies vice versa, if the thermometer number is below 37 and not less than 35, it indicates that the body temperature is normal.
Behind the uniqueness or privilege of mercury, it turns out that the water can be said to be water that has poison, so that it can harm someone’s self. Therefore, we must keep the thermometer from breaking. To prevent the thermometer from breaking, you can do it by placing the thermometer in a really safe place. Of course, parents do not want their children to be exposed to mercury poisoning, so the thermometer should be placed in a place where children cannot reach it.
Thermometer Temperature Inventor
After discussing the meaning of the thermometer, we will now discuss the inventors of the thermometer. As we know that a thermometer is a tool for measuring body temperature, but not all use degrees Celsius. Therefore, the inventors of the thermometer can be regarded as the inventors of temperature degrees as well, such as degrees Fahrenheit, Reamur, Celsius, and others.
The following are thermometer inventors or scientists who have a role in the development of thermometers.
The thermometer was first invented by a scientist named Galileo Galilei. 15 February 1564 was his birth date and he was born in Pisa, Tuscany. He is the first child. His father was named Vicenzo Galilei who was an expert in mathematics as well as a musician from Florence and Giulia Ammannati.
Galileo Galilei had studied at the University of Pisa, but had to stop because of financial problems. Despite having to drop out of the University of Pisa, he was offered a job teaching mathematics in 1589. Not only teaching mathematics, he moved to the University of Padua to give lessons in geometry, astronomy, and mechanics. This teaching activity was carried out until 1610. Thanks to this teaching activity, Galileo Galilei had studied and deepened science and had made various kinds of discoveries.
At that time, astronomers and natural science scientists had not been able to find a tool that could function to measure temperature. Basically, these scientists have realized that a substance will expand when subjected to a change in temperature. However, the substance used to measure temperature with precision and the right scale has not yet been found. However, thanks to his tenacity to find a temperature measuring device, Galileo Galilei was able to find a temperature measuring device.
One of the inventions of Galileo Galilei that is well known by many people is the thermoscope or air thermometer. He found this measuring instrument in 1593 and made it by utilizing the expansion of air. Although the measuring instrument created by Galileo Galilei was very simple, this tool can measure temperature.
The big balls will move to the surface or sink, when there is a change in temperature. With the changes that occur in the large balls in the long pipe filled with water, it shows that there is a changing temperature scale.
Santorio Santorio was born into a noble family, his father named Antonio was from a noble family from Friuli and his mother named Elisabetta Cordonia came from a noble family. He was born in Capodistria on March 29, 1561. After completing his studies, he continued his studies in Venice, then continued his studies at the University of Padua in 1575. When he finished studying at the University of Padua, he earned a medical degree.
After obtaining a doctor’s degree, he later became the personal physician of a Croatian nobleman from 1589 to 1599. His interest in the medical field was unquestionable, and he was even entrusted with becoming the President of the Venetian College of Physicians and Chief Medical Officer. In addition, Santorio Santorio has invented several inventions, such as an anemometer, a device for measuring water waves and a pulsilogium , or a device for measuring heart rate.
All of these discoveries can be said to be improvements from the measuring instruments that had been invented by Galileo Galilei. In fact, in the history of medicine, the heart measuring instrument pulsilogium was the first to be discovered.
The scientist who played a role in the advancement of the thermometer or the next temperature measuring device was Ferdinand II (Grand Duke of Tuscany). He conducted various kinds of research and experiments in order to create a better thermometer than previous inventors. Likewise with Santorio Santorio who thought that the invention of the thermoscope from Galileo Galilei still had deficiencies, so he created a better measuring instrument.
After conducting various kinds of research and conducting various kinds of experiments, Ferdinand II finally created a measuring instrument (thermometer) that uses liquid in glass. The thermometer made of glass is the first in the world. The liquid used by Ferdinand II was alcohol.
Even though the thermometer created by Ferdinand II was the result of improvements and developments from the thermometers that had been found before, this thermometer still had some drawbacks. The drawback is that the level of accuracy is still not good and there is no standard scale.
Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit
Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit is a physicist from Germany. Even though he is a physicist from Germany, he was born in Danzig, Poland on May 24, 1686. He showed his love for the world of physics through various kinds of research and experiments, so that he could fly almost all over Europe and be pleased with various scientific figures, such as Gottfried Leibniz.
After previously Ferdinand II created the first glass thermometer with a liquid in the form of alcohol, Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit began to develop this invention. This he did to correct the deficiencies of the thermometer that had been found previously. Until finally in 1714, he invented the first thermometer that uses mercury or mercury. Ten years later or more precisely in 1724, he published a standard temperature scale so that temperature changes could be made or calculated accurately. The temperature scale is known as the Fahrenheit temperature scale, which is taken from its name, namely Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit.
Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit uses mercury instead of alcohol because he thinks mercury is better for dealing with changes in body temperature. In addition, mercury will remain stable even in a state of freezing and boiling, even mercury does not evaporate.
Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit also set a new temperature point on his homemade thermometer. The temperature point is the hot point and freezing point in 180 degrees and the bottom point is 32 degrees. He did this so that the measured temperature did not reach a negative temperature.
Rene Antonie Ferchault de Reamur
Rene Antonie Ferchauld de Reamur is a French scientist. He was born in La Rochelle, France on February 28, 1683. He was also part of the development of world thermometers. There have been many contributions made by Rene Antonie Ferchauld de Reamur in various scientific fields, especially entomology. Contributions in the field of entomology need not be doubted.
Almost the same as Daniel Gabriel Fahreinheit, Reamur also determined the thermometer scale based on the freezing and boiling points of water. The invention of the thermometer scale created by Rene Antonie Ferchauld de Reamur is named Reamur. The Reamur thermometer scale is often used in various European countries, especially France and Germany. In addition, the Reamur scale is often used in the candy and cheese industries.
The development of the next thermometer was carried out by an astronomer from Sweden. Anders Celsius was born on November 27, 1701 in Ovanaker, Sweden. Intelligence in astronomy can be proven by the professor of astronomy at Uppsala University, from 1730 to 1744.
In developing the thermometer, Anders Celsius wanted to develop from the shortcomings of the previous inventors of the thermometer scale. He conducted various kinds of research and experiments in order to get a good thermometer temperature scale. Until 1742, Anders Celsius created a thermometer temperature scale.
The temperature scale created by Anders Celsius is the freezing point of water at 0 degrees and the boiling point of water at 100 degrees at standard atmospheric pressure. This thermometer scale is named the Celsius thermometer scale. The scale created by Anders Celsius is still widely used by many people. Not only that, almost all body thermometers use the Anders Celsius thermometer scale.
The last scientist who played a role in the development of the thermometer was Lord Kelvin. He was born in Britain in 1824 and he was born with the name William Thomson. Lord Kelvin can be said to be the first to propose an absolute scale of temperature.
After the Celsius scale was discovered, Lord Kelvin invented or created a new thermometer scale. The scale created by Lord Kelvin is the result of the development of the idea of absolute temperature or known as the “Second Law of Theory of Dynamics”. The thermometer scale invented by Lord Kelvin is called the Kelvin thermometer scale.
Source: From various sources
Author: Restu Nasik Kamaluddin