Packaging

Definition of Packaging: Functions, Benefits, Purpose, and Types of Packaging

Packaging is something that is very important and cannot be separated from the marketing and distribution process of a product. So what exactly is the meaning of packaging, and what is the purpose of packaging itself?

In this article, we will briefly discuss several things related to packaging, including:

  • Explanation of what is meant by packaging, both in general terms and according to several experts.
  • Functions and benefits of packaging.
  • Types of packaging.
  • And how to make attractive packaging.

Let’s read the article to the end, so you understand better what packaging is.

Understanding Packaging in General

In general, the definition of packaging is a container or wrapper that is useful for preventing or minimizing damage to the product or goods packaged or wrapped.

Another opinion says, packaging is a product wrapping material that serves to protect, accommodate, provide identification , and promote the product.

In this case, the function of packaging is not limited to providing protection for a product. Packaging can also act as a marketing tool to build brand identity and increase sales.

So, what is meant by packaging?

Packaging means a coordinated system of preparing goods for transportation, warehousing, logistics, sales, and final use. Simply put, packaging is a process of giving a container or wrapper to a product.

In the packaging process there are activities to protect, preserve, transport, inform, and sell a product.

So, the main purpose of packaging products is to protect and prevent damage to what the industry sells. In addition, packaging can also be a good means of information and marketing by making creative packaging designs so that they are more attractive and easy for consumers to remember.

Understanding Packaging According to Experts

To better understand what packaging means, we can refer to the opinions of several experts on the definition of packaging. Below is the meaning of packaging according to experts:

1. Philip Kotler and Gary Armstrong

According to Kotler and Armstrong (2012), the notion of packaging is a form of activity that involves design and production, so that this packaging can function so that the product inside can be protected.

2. FD Rodriguez

According to Rodriguez (2008), the notion of packaging is packaging or active packaging is a container that changes the condition of food ingredients by adding active compounds so as to extend the shelf life of packaged foodstuffs and also improve safety and maintain quality.

3. Marianne Klimchuk and Sandra Krasovec

According to Klimchuk and Krasovec (2006), the definition of packaging is a creative design that connects the shape, structure, material, color, image, typography and design elements with product information so that the product can be marketed.

4. Eric P. Danger

According to Danger (1992), the meaning of packaging is a container or wrapper to prepare goods to be ready to be transported, distributed, stored, sold, and used. With a container or wrapper can help protect the product in it.

 

Packaging Functions According to Experts

there are two functions of packaging given to a product, namely a protective function and a promotional function. Here is the explanation:

1. Packaging Protective Function

Protective function means that packaging functions as a protector or product security from things that can damage the product, such as climate, distribution processes, and others.

Packaging that protects the product will prevent damage and the risk of defects that can harm the buyer or seller.

2. Packaging Promotional Function

As mentioned above, packaging can also serve as a promotional or marketing medium. This can be done by making attractive packaging, both in terms of design, color, size, and others.

While the general function of packaging is:

  • Self Service ; Packaging shows the characteristics of a product being sold so that each product must have a different packaging.
  • Consumer Affluence ; Attractive packaging can influence consumers to be willing to pay more.
  • Company and Brand Image ; Packaging is the company’s brand image so that it can be one of the company’s identities to be known by the public.
  • Innovative Opportunity ; Innovative packaging can benefit consumers and benefit companies.

 

The Benefits of Packaging and Its Purpose

Alice Louw and Michelle Kimber (2007) say that there are at least seven benefits and purposes of packaging a product/goods. Here’s the explanation:

  1. Physical Production ; The purpose of packaging is to protect the product/goods from temperature, vibration, shock, pressure and so on around it
  2. Barrier Protection ; Installation of packaging on a product/goods aims to protect it from oxygen resistance, water vapor, dust and so on.
  3. Containment or Agglomeration ; Goods packaging also aims at grouping so that the handling and transportation process becomes more efficient.
  4. Information Transmission ; The package may also include instructions on how to use the transportation, recycle, and dispose of the package or label.
  5. Reducing Theft ; Installation of packaging on products/goods also aims to prevent theft by looking at physical damage to the packaging.
  6. Convenience ; Packaging is a feature that adds convenience in distribution, handling, sale, display, opening, re-closing, use and reuse.
  7. Marketing ; The design of packaging and labels can be used by marketers to encourage potential buyers to buy products.

 

Type of Packaging/Packaging

The types of packaging or packaging can be grouped into three categories, namely:

1. Based on Content Structure

Types of packaging based on the structure of the contents are containers made according to the contents of the package. This type of packaging can be divided into three, including:

  • Primary Packaging ; Primary packaging is a packaging material that is a direct container for food ingredients. For example milk cans, drink bottles, and others.
  • Secondary Packaging ; The definition of secondary packaging is a container that serves to provide protection against other packaging groups. For example, cardboard boxes to store milk cans, or wooden boxes to store fruit, and so on.
  • Tertiary Packaging ; Tertiary packaging is the packaging used to store or protect the product during the shipping process.

2. Based on Frequency of Use

Types of packaging can also be grouped based on the frequency of use. Some of these types of packaging include:

  • Disposable Packaging ; i.e. single-use packaging that is only used once and then thrown away. For example plastic containers, banana leaf wrap, and others.
  • Multi Trip Packaging ; namely packaging that can be used many times by consumers and can be returned to selling agents for reuse. For example, a drink bottle.
  • Semi Disposable Packaging ; namely packaging that is not discarded because it can be used for other things by consumers. For example, a can of biscuits.

3. Based on the Level of Readiness

Packaging can also be grouped based on the level of readiness to use, including:

  • Ready-to-Use Packaging ; namely the type of packaging that is ready to be filled and its shape has been perfect since it was produced. For example bottles, cans, and others.
  • Ready Assembled Packaging ; namely packaging that requires an assembly stage before being filled with products/goods. For example, plastic, aluminum foil, packaging paper.

Tips for Making Attractive Packaging

After knowing the meaning of packaging along with the function and purpose of making packaging, then how to make attractive packaging? Here are the tips:

1. Create a Unique Packaging Design

One of the important points in forming packaging is to design it in a unique, innovative and different way from other products. Unique packaging is very effective in attracting people’s interest and making them curious.

For example, when a supermarket shelf is lined with box-shaped packaging, then you make a round package, consumers will automatically observe it carefully and be curious about the contents inside.

2. Packaging Design According to Target Market

The packaging design used should be adapted to the target market. For example, if your target market is children aged 5-12 years, then make a packaging design that can be added to the cartoons that are most popular with children or in a form of packaging that resembles a toy. Likewise, if the target is adults, the design must also be adjusted.

3. Make Packages with Multiple Sizes

If the product you are selling is a new product, try to make packaging in various sizes, such as small, medium and large. People tend to choose the smallest packaging for newly released products.

4. Include Complete Product Information

Don’t forget to include product information on the packaging. For example, standard packaging includes product composition, product type, method of use and expiration date. Consumers tend not to be interested in products that have minimal information.

 

Conclusion

From the explanation above, it can be concluded that packaging is a packaging material for consumer goods that has the function to accommodate, identify, explain, protect, display, promote, and keep the product clean.

While packaging is a system that is structured in such a way as to prepare goods/products so that they can be distributed, sold, stored, and used by consumers in good condition.

Thus an explanation of the meaning of packaging, functions, goals, and tips for making attractive packaging. Keep in mind that the packaging is the identity of the company, if there is an update on the packaging, it should not be too different from the previous design.


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Economics Student of Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.